Comparison Of Dental Age Of Hubli Dharwad Children By Moore's Method With The Skeletal Age And Chronological Age
B Gupta, R Anegundi, P Sudha
biological age, chronological age, demirjian, dental age, moorees, skeletal age
B Gupta, R Anegundi, P Sudha. Comparison Of Dental Age Of Hubli Dharwad Children By Moore's Method With The Skeletal Age And Chronological Age. The Internet Journal of Dental Science. 2007 Volume 6 Number 1.
The developmental status of a child is usually assessed in relation to physical events that take place during the progress of growth. Although growth events occur in reasonably constant sequences, the ages at which they are reached vary considerably among children. The various biological ages commonly used are dental age, chronological age, skeletal age, secondary sexual characteristics and morphological age but one expression cannot denote the complexity of growth and development. This study is an attempt to compare the dental age with the chronological age and the skeletal age.
The developmental status of a child is usually assessed in relation to physical events that take place during the progress of growth. Although growth events occur in reasonably constant sequences, the ages at which they are reached vary considerably among children.
Age determination plays an important role in pediatric medicine, endocrinology, pediatric dentistry and orthodontics
Review of Literature
. Though various studies have been conducted in Western population to assess the various biological ages individually, very few studies have compared and correlated the different ages. Moreover similar studies are also lacking in Indian population therefore an attempt has been made for Hubli-Dharwad School going children.
Aims and Objectives
1) To determine the dental developmental stages in Hubli-Dharwad children.
2) To determine the skeletal developmental stages in Hubli-Dharwad children.
3) To test the applicability of the Mooree's criteria for maturity score in dental age assessment in Hubli-Dharwad children.
4)To compare and correlate the obtained dental age with the respective skeletal ages.
50 children visiting the clinic randomly picked up from the age group 9-15 years.
25 girls and 25 boys were selected on the basis of absence of any growth disorder and with the presence of all the permanent teeth. (Either erupted or still erupting except the 3rd molar).The chronological age was recorded as per told by the parents.
The Materials used were
5”x12” Kodak (OPG films),
8”x10” fuji (Hand wrist Radiograph;)
The Methods used were
Fishmans Method 8
The radiographic evaluation of skeletal maturation was done by Fishman's Method based on four stages of bone maturation; all found at six anatomical sites located in the thumb, third finger, fifth finger and radius.
Moorees Method 4
Provides norms of the formation of ten permanent teeth, namely, the maxillary incisors and all eight mandibular teeth on the basis of fourteen arbitrarily selected stages of tooth development
The tooth stages are plotted on the interpolation graph and the mean alveolar emergence or dental age can be calculated
Both the Orthopantograms and Hand wrist radiograph was given the same code for one child. Four orthopantograms were assessed daily to minimize the intraexaminer and interexaminer fatigue and variability to measure the teeth matching the scores.
The data was subjected to Statistical analysis and the following values were drawn.
Results and Discussion
I. Comparison of different types of age of females
II.Comparison of different types of age of males
III.Comparison of different types of age of total (males + female)
Determination of a child's growth and development are of great value for planning the treatment in orthodontics, Pedodontics, pediatric endocrinopathis and forensic medicine. Though various methods are present yet a single entity cannot express the ever-changing nature of growth and development.
Panoramic radiographs have been used because they are easier to make than the intra oral radiographs in the young children and also give less amount of radiation when compared to full mouth radiography (Mc Donald's 1969) 9 . The picture of the mandibular region they produce is little distorted though there is 3 to 10% enlargement on the left side of the mandible (Sapoka and Demirjian 1971) 10 . This is not a serious drawback, because the rating system is based on shape criteria and relative values rather than on absolute lengths. Initially all fourteen lower mandibular teeth in the scoring system were used. Further investigation suggested that a seven tooth system using one side only would give almost the same estimate as one, using all fourteen teeth. For further simplicity each tooth was given equal weight.
In the Moorees method 4 , the maxillary central incisors and the mandibular teeth have been considered to prevent any bias due to the shadow of maxillary sinus in the maxillary posterior region. Though Moorees method appears to be cumbersome but has intricated a more detailed chart of tooth development with 14 stages.
The Hand and Wrist radiograph have been used to assess the skeletal age by Fishman's method 31 due to the presence of all the skeletal maturity stages and thus the reliability can be ensured. The method for evaluation of skeletal maturity is dependent on the appearance, size and differentiation of various ossification centers and the degrees of fusion between the epiphysis and shafts of the bones of hand and wrist. Fishman's method has been used to as it is simple and well established, it can be utilized without the presence of any atlas and thus can be easily used in clinics
The dental age obtained by Moorees method 4 , underestimated the age of Hubli-Dharwad children. This is in accordance to that reported by Marks (1992) 6 in the mid south and midwest (Ohio) samples showing racial and ethnic differences. Moorees in 1963 4 suggested that short time intervals between the different dental development stages may adversely affect the possibility of identifying the relationship between tooth development and maturation
The difference of the mean of the skeletal ages of the girls was statistically significant. The Skeletal Age is more correlated to the chronological age than the dental age in Hubli-Dharwad children.. The mean of the chronological age and the skeletal age showed less significant difference when compared to the dental age in the male children.
A high correlation between dental and skeletal ages has also been observed in Gulati et al 11 (r=0.98 in boys) and r=0.93 in girls), Lamons and Gray 12 (r=0.93 in boys and r=0.88 in girls) and Sierra 13 (r=0.82) Prabhakar 7 (r=0.89). Similarly Tanner et al (1975) 14 has suggested that bone age contributes little to the prediction of adult stature in younger children although it is helpful within a few years of the pubertal growth spurt.
Summary and Conclusions drawn from the following study were
1) The Dental Age of Hubli-Dharwad children were under estimated by Mooree's Method.
2) An under estimation of the Dental age of Females was more than males by Mooree's Method
3) The Skeletal Age is more correlated to the chronological age than the dental age in Hubli-Dharwad children.
4) The mean of the chronological age and the skeletal age showed less significant difference when compared to the dental age in the male children.
Although various methods of age assessment have been used, the applicability can vary due to the wide ethnic differences between the populations. It is therefore mandatory that maturity standards should be based on the same population for which they are going to be used.
Ethnic differences and racial variations suggest that new criteria's and new grading scores should be formulated and published exclusively for that particular population.