S khan, M Hassan, G Yasin
acute infection, dog, leptospira
S khan, M Hassan, G Yasin. Acute Leptospirosis in Dog- A case report. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 2.
An eight year old of female ND (Non-descriptive breed) dog with fever, vomiting, anorexic and depressed condition was monitored over 7 days till death. Icterus was common in the affected dog and increased liver enzyme activity and BUN and creatinine clearly showed the hepatic and renal dysfunction. Postmortem findings showed icteric, mottled liver and necrotic kidney. The antibody titer was 1:200 at the 5th day for the
Leptospirosis is a sporadic bacterial zoonotic disease caused spirochetes of the genus Leptospira that affects humans and wide range of animals. This disease continues to have a major impact on people living in urban and rural areas of developing countries with a high level of morbidity and mortality. Leptospirosis is transmitted by the urine of an infected animal and is contagious as long as it is still moist. Leptospiral infections cause both acute and chronic disease and the severity of infections are related to the virulence of the organism, susceptibility of the host, and the affected host species (Radostits, et. al., 2000). Several antigenically distinct serovars of
Diagnosis may be difficult during the early stages of the disease due to vague symptoms and increase in kidney and liver values having yet to occur. Liver damage is demonstrated by increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. Bilirubin concentration also is increased, reflecting cholestasis. The increase in serum ALP activity often is proportionally greater than that of ALT activity. Increased serum amylase and lipase activities may result from their release from inflamed hepatic and small intestinal tissues and from decreased renal clearance. Diagnosis of leptospirosis is based on a combination of suggestive historical information, physical findings, nonspecific laboratory findings, and confirmatory testing. Confirmatory tests include serologic testing to detect antibody production to
Materials and Method
An eight year old female ND (Non-descriptive breed) dog presented with fever, vomiting, anorexia and depression. A physical examination revealed normal lymph nodes, heart rate 70/min, temperature 105oF and yellowish urine. A blood sample was then tested for
Agglutination test (MAT) was performed in acute stage (day 5 of the onset of clinical sign) and the titer was found as 1: 200.
The first line of treatment of leptospirosis is to provide the dog with a suitable antibiotic. The penicillin class of antibiotics works well against leptospirosis. In addition to antibiotic therapy, intravenous and subcutaneous fluids are giving to as supportive care (Adin,
Both BUN and creatinine were elevated suggesting kidney damage and blood serum chemistry values were consistent with liver damage (elevated ALP, ALT and bilirubin) (McDonough, 2007).
The current “gold standard” diagnostic test for leptospirosis is the Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination Test (L-MAT) performed during the acute stage of disease. In the acute stage of infection the titer is low and then rise in the convalescent sample to 1:800-1:1600 or higher if a homologous
The postmortem findings were consistent with a leptospirosis infection. Lesions were found throughout liver which was mottled in appearance. In an acute infection the liver is affected most severely (Greene, 1998).
In the past decade, leptospirosis has emerged as a globally important infectious zoonotic disease. It occurs in urban and rural environments in both industrialized and developing countries throughout the world. Humans are infected from carrier animals, primarily feral and peri-domestic rodents, especially rats, and domestic farm animals (dogs, pigs and cattle). Transmission occurs from occupational or recreational immersion in contaminated water or by direct contact with carrier animals. Leptospirosis is an infectious disease which infects not only dogs, but other mammals as well. People can be infected with leptospirosis, causing potentially life-threatening illness, making leptospirosis a particularly dangerous zoonotic disease.
The authors are grateful for the teacher staff at Madras veterinary clinics for their generous support to conduct the study.