B Semwal, K Shah, N Chauhan, R Badhe, K Divakar
alloxan, antidiabetic activity, bark, berberin, glucose tolerance test
B Semwal, K Shah, N Chauhan, R Badhe, K Divakar. Anti-diabetic activity of stem bark of Berberis aristata D.C. in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2007 Volume 6 Number 1.
Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders with micro and macro vascular complications that results in significant morbidity and mortality. It is considered as one of the five leading causes of death in the world 1,2 . About 150 million or 1.3% people are suffering from diabetes world wide which is almost five times more than the estimates ten years ago and this may double by the year 2030 3 . Diabetes was discovered as early as 700-200 BC; until the time insulin was invented, this disorder was managed principally by the traditional practices by using medicinal plants 4 There are numerous traditional medicinal plants reported to have hypoglycemic properties such as
Materials and methods
Plant material used in this study consisted of the stem bark of
Male Wistar albino rats (150–250 g) housed in a spacious cage for ten days after obtaining approval from ‘Institutes Ethical Committee' 997/c/06/CPCSEA. During the experiments rats were feeded with standard pellet diet. After randomization into various groups, the rats were acclimatized for 2–3 days in environment before initiation of experiment.
Glucose tolerance test
Rats were divided into four groups containing six animals in each group. All animals fasted before treatment. Group I was kept as vehicle control which received 5% Tween 80 p.o., group II received glucose only, group III received ethanolic extract 25 mg/kg and group IV received only extract only in a vehicle respectively .The rats of group II and III were loaded with glucose (3 g/kg, p.o.) 30 min after drug administration. Blood samples were collected from puncturing the retro orbital sinus just prior to drug administration, and 30, 90, 150 min after loading glucose. Serum glucose level was measured immediately by using glucose estimation kit (Span Diagnostic Pvt. Ltd. Surat, India) 8 .
Induction of diabetes
All the animals were randomly divided into five groups with six animals in each group. Group I was used as control. Group II, III, IV and V were made diabetic by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg; Rollex, India) and served as diabetic control, standard and treatment groups respectively. Rats exhibited in plasma glucose levels >250 mg/dl, 48 h after administration of alloxan were included in the study. Treatment for diabetes (
Blood samples were collected retro-orbitally from the inner canthus of the eye under light ether anesthesia using capillary tubes (Micro Hematocrit Capillaries, Mucaps). Blood was collected in fresh micro centrifuge tube and plasma separated in a T8 electric centrifuger (Remi Udyog, New Delhi) at 2000 rpm for 15 min.
Collection of liver
After 15 days of daily feeding of extracts orally the animals were killed by decapitation liver was collected.
Estimation of Biochemical parameter
Serum glucose, serum cholesterol serum total lipids, serum protein, serum urea, SGOT (Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) and SGPT (Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase) were estimated by commercially available kits (Span Diagnostic Pvt. Ltd. Surat, India). Liver glycogen content was estimated by the method of Carrol et al.,1955 9 .
All results were expressed as the mean ± Standard Deviation (S.D) Statistical analysis was performed with Graph Pad Instat software (version 3.00, Graph Pad Software, San Diego, California, USA) by using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparison was done by using Dunnett test. P value <0.05 was considered as significant.
The effect of extract of
Effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Administration of alloxan monohydrates (125 mg/kg) led to elevation of blood glucose level. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the ethanolic extract of stem bark of
Effect on serum urea, protein, cholesterol, total lipids, SGOT and SGPT, body weight and liver glycogen
At the end of 15 days of treatment the body weight of the untreated diabetic rats was found to be significantly decreased and significant increase in the liver glycogen compared with the control rats. The administration of
The normal function of the kidney was assessed as blood urea level in normal, diabetic and treated animals and it was altered from 31.83 mg/dl (normal) against 131.51 mg/dl (diabetic control) after the 15th day of alloxan treatment. The results of serum urea level indicates that the animals administered with
The blood cholesterol and total lipid levels were reduced significantly (P<0.01) and their reduction was slightly higher than the standard, which reflects the potential hypolipidemic effect of the
The treatment of alloxan induced diabetic rats by
Management of diabetes with the agents devoid of any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This concern has led to an increase and demand for natural products with antihyperglycaemic activity having fewer side effects. Indian traditional medicine is one of the richest medicinal systems among those available around the world.
Plants may act on blood glucose through different mechanisms, some of them may have insulin-like substances 11 , stimulation of β-cells to produce more insulin 12 and others may increase β -cells in the pancreas by activating regeneration of pancreatic cells 13,14 . The fiber of plants may also interfere with carbohydrate absorption; thereby affecting blood glucose. The ethanolic extract of stem bark of
Ghosh and Suryawanshi, 2001 observed elevation in transaminase activity (SGOT and SGPT) in liver and kidney in diabetic rats 15 . Increased gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis observed in diabetes may be due to the high level in the activities of these transaminases. The restoration of SGOT and SGPT to their respective normal levels after treatment with both glibenclamide and alcoholic extract of
Moreover, improvement of body weight of the extract treated animal further supports the antidiabetogenic effect of
The data of our studies suggests that
The authors wish to acknowledge the support and encouragement of Prof. Divakar Goli during the course of study.
Bhupesh Chander Semwal Department of Pharmacology G.L.A Institute of Pharmaceutical Research Mathura, India Email: firstname.lastname@example.org