M Igbe, D Duhlinska, S Agwale
cutaneous leishmaniasis, leishmaniasis, nigeria
M Igbe, D Duhlinska, S Agwale. Epidemiological Survey of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Jos East L.G.A. Of Plateau State Nigeria.. The Internet Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2008 Volume 4 Number 1.
A house-to-house survey of the prevalence of leishmaniasis infection was carried out in Jos East Local Government Area of Plateau State, Nigeria, Cutaneous Lishmaniasis was diagnosed in 2.6% of a population of 703 inhabitants of the area. 18 inhabitants had the infection, which was considered to be native. 10 were males and 8 were females with age varying between 10 and 55. This area is a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Nigeria.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical Regions in various parts of the world. In the African continent, Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to
The first case of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Nigeria were reported in 1944 by Elmes and Hall4 .They referred to the annual report of the medical and health services of Nigeria recording 131 cases of Cutaneous leishmaniasis and 5 case of visceral leishmaniasis, during 1924-1941, but there was no indication that these cases were parasitologically confirmed. And the authors explained that after reported attempts to confirm clinicall suspected cases of cutaneous leihmaniasis, success was achieved in 1942 when
In recent study undertaken among school children with Cutaneous leishmaniasis from Keana in the Jos Plateau,
Materials and methods
Field study area
The study area lies in the Jos Plateau in Jos East LGA of Plateau state, Nigeria, and is close to the Shere Hills. The area is in Northern Nigeria, and lies north of the Niger – Benue trough. It is more of the North Central Plateau, and it is formed on basement complex Rocks, which have produced a characteristics inselberg landscape. Angware, the area of study lies around 90N., 100 E and it is situated 50Km North East of Jos, the Capital of Plateau state. Its vegetation is generally Guinea Savanna, which consist of tall grasses and some trees. The annual rainfall of this zone is about 150cm and lasts between 6-8 months. Clinico-parasitological screening for Cutaneous leishmaniasis was conducted between the month of March – June, 1999. All the patients were interviewed and information on sex, age, residential area and traveling history was recorded, the clinical diagnosis of the disease was confirmed by the presence of parasites in smears after May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) staining.
The proportions of people with active lesions were 2.6 (18/703) i.e. 18 individuals presented active lesions at the time of the survey. The proportion of people found to have scars was 2.0 (14/703). The lesions were ulcerative, volcano sign types and wet in appearance. The number of lesions varied between 1 and 5 (average =2). Of the 18 inhabitant with infections considered to be native. 10 were male and 8 were females with age varying between 10 and 55 (average = 22.7 years). There were 11 cases in children/adolescent (10-17years) and 7 cases in adults (19 – 55 years). 4 were housewives, 7 were pupils, 3 were students, 1 civil servant and 1 businessman. Of the 18 natives cases, all 18 presented lesions on the lower limb, and duration of symptoms varied between 2 – 24 months (average = 7 months). They have lived in this locality since birth with the exception of the civil servant who has lived there for only 7 months. The majority of patients were between 6 – 22 years.
Since the cases of leishmaniasis were high in this class of individuals, this indicates that the infection is endemic in this community (Lysenko
The occurrence of the infection in both sexes, and without any nearby forest areas is epidemiological characteristics that suggest the occurrence of infection in the peridomiciliar or domiciliary environment.
Until the present study there has been little of no information concerning Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Agware, the data derived from this survey not only suggests the existence of Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the village but were also important for the characterization of the epidemiological behaviour of the disease in the area. The distribution by probable date of the native cases demonstrated that Cutaneous leishmaniasis had started to manifest itself in the area at least 20 years ago, always in the form of sporadic cases.
Further studies required to determine the eco-epidemiology, including biotic factors (Flora, reservoir host, humans, parasite) and abiotic factors (geology, pedology, climatology). From these, it will be possible to define more fully the transmission cycle of leishmaniasis and the factors involved. Such information is a basis requirement for the design of a successful control programme
We thank Dr. Blaise Dondji for his guidance. Mr. Stephen Pate (Primary Health Centre, Agware,) for his valuable technical assistance.