Pervasiveness Of Anemia In Adolescent Girls Of Low Socio-Economic Group Of The District Of Kurukshetra (Haryana)
N Gupta, G Kochar
N Gupta, G Kochar. Pervasiveness Of Anemia In Adolescent Girls Of Low Socio-Economic Group Of The District Of Kurukshetra (Haryana). The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008 Volume 7 Number 1.
During adolescent, due to growth spurt anemia appears to be more for both sexes and risk is high in girls due to onset of menstruation and may continue later during their reproductive life. In the perspective study, one hundred ten adolescent girls between ages 13 -16 years of low socio-economic group of district Kurukshetra (Haryana) were screened out for their hemoglobin level and for nutritional as well as socio-economic status. Data regarding socio-economic status was collected through pre-structured questionnaire cum interview method. Nutritional status was adjudged by their anthropometric measurements (height, weight and BMI) and nutrient intake. Dietary intake of selected subjects was adjudged by 24 hour recall method for three consecutive days and intake of nutrients from the diet was calculated with help of nutritive value of Indian foods. Hemoglobin level of each subject was measured by using Sahil's technique. Out of one hundred ten girls, more than two third (81.81 per cent) girls were suffering from various degree of anemia as their Hb level ranges between 6.6 g/dl to 11.0 g/dl. The dietary data revealed that nutrient intake especially iron intake was very much less than as recommended by ICMR for adolescent girls. Due to low dietary intake, their weight was found less and the subjects were in energy deficit state. Analysis of data further disclosed that prevalence of anemia was directly related to family size and type of family as that affect quality and quantity of food consumption. Thus, inspite of various welfare programmes, it appears from the study that these girls are not benefited from any scheme run by government such as ICDS .
Adolescence is a state or process of growing up from puberty to maturity. Adolescent account for 1/5 of the world's population and in India they account for 22.8 per cent of the total population. Number of adolescent in India particularly girls live under suboptimal conditions marked by poor nutritional status and high level of morbidity and mortality. Adolescent girls who are potential mothers and future homemakers constitute an important part of our society.
The nutritional requirements of adolescent are influenced primarily by the normal event of puberty and simultaneous spurt of growth. Puberty is an intensely anabolic period with increase in height and weight, alteration in the body composition resulting from increased lean body mass and change in the quantity and distribution of fat and enlargement of many organ systems. Adolescent are particularly susceptible to iron deficiency anemia in view of the increased need for dietary iron for hemoglobin and myoglobin synthesis during the rapid period of growth when blood volume and muscle mass are increasing. Nutritional anemia due to iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional problem in the world today. More than 500 million people have iron deficiency anemia (ACC/SCN 1992, Craig 1994). Iron deficiency is not life threatening but it can have detrimental effect on work capacity, learning ability and resistance to disease. Once anemia result, there is also impairment in cognitive performance and behavior (Indjradinata and Pollitt, 1993) and in girls further cause pregnancy complications (Viteri, 1994)
In one of the survey NIN (1994) reported that 70 per cent of the Indian young girls suffered from anemia. The present study was therefore carried out as a baseline survey to find out the pervasiveness of anemia among rural adolescent girls of district Kurukshetra (Haryana) belonging to the weaker socio-economic group.
Material And Methods
Locale of study and selection of subject
The study was confined to the 110 girls students who were studying in VIII, IX, X, XI class of Kurukshetra of Haryana. The age group of the subjects was 13-16 years belonging to low socio economic group and were selected by random purposive sampling technique.
Filled the graduated tube of haemoglobin meter to 20 marks with N/10 HCL.
Added 0.2ml of blood mixed well and left for.
Added distilled water drop by drop mixing between each addition until the colour matched with standard comparator (brown glass standard)
Read the lower level of fluid meniscus on gm/100ml of blood.
The classification of anemia as recommended by WHO (1992) and NIN (1986) was followed for categorization of the subjects.
Height: The measurement of height (in cm) was taken with the help of measuring tape to the nearest 0.5 cm. and the height was measured in centimeters.
Weight: The body weight is the simplest measurement of growth and nutritional status. The subjects were weighed on a simple weighing machine (bathroom sale). The reading was taken to the nearest 0.5Kg.
Body Mass Index: BMI is expressed as a ratio of weight in kilogram to square of height in meters.
BMI = Weight (Kg)/Height (m 2 )
* CED – Chronic Energy Deficit
Based on classification given by Garrow (1986) and Naidu (1997) etc.
Results And Discussion
Following the NIN classification it was found that out of one hundred ten girls, only 20 (18.19 %) subjects were non anemic and remaining 90 (81.81 %) subjects were suffering from various degree of anemia as their Hb level ranges between 6.6 g/dl to 11.0 g/dl (Fig. 1). Perusal of table 3 cleared that among the anemic subjects , 20 per cent had mild, 73.33 per cent had moderate and 6.67 per cent of subjects had severe degree of anemia .
Relationship between anemia and socio-economic information
Mean height of selected girls was found 151.012 ± 13.36 cm while mean weight was 40.69 ± 12.60 kg and from the above values, BMI (body mass index) was computed which was 17.40 ± 2.78 kg/m 2 . The mean BMI value revealed that the selected subjects were in chronic energy deficit state Grade I (table 2).
The mean calorie and protein intake of the subjects was 1513.5 ± 6.94 cal and 45.5 ± 9.8 g, respectively. The corresponding values for intake of calories and protein were very much lower than that recommended by ICMR. Like calorie and protein, intake of calcium, iron and folic acid were also less than RDA than ICMR requirement and respective values of calcium, iron, and folic intake were 537.36 ± 203.66 mg, 15.43 ± 1.15 mg and 63.71 ± 7.77 mg. Contrary to above nutrients, consumption of fat (25.59 ± 2.91g) and vitamin C (88.56 ± 36.22 mg) were higher than recommended dietary allowances, respectively. Thus the available data revealed that iron and protein intake is not adequate to acquire substantial iron stores during this time.
In spite of the fact that anemia is a preventable condition, it is highly prevalent among the adolescent in all over India, as from the last ten years much focus has been given on adolescent pregnancies and diseases like sexually transmitted disease including HIV, but a very less attention has been paid to nutrition. An attempt was made to explorate the effect of some of the dietary and non- dietary factors on the prevalence of anemia. From these results, it is concluded that over all socio- economic development, adequate nutrient intake and education will surely help in reducing the prevalence of anemia in adolescents.
Sincere thanks are owed to all the subjects who voluntarily participate in the research and gave their blood for testing. Also I acknowledge my thanks to Department of Home-Sceince, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra for providing facilities to complete this work.