A study of antibacterial activity of plant extracts on bacterial pathogens isolated from Eye infections (conjunctivitis)
I Al-Saimary. A study of antibacterial activity of plant extracts on bacterial pathogens isolated from Eye infections (conjunctivitis). The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2006 Volume 4 Number 1.
Isolation of bacterial pathogens from eye infections ( conjunctivitis ) was carried out in this study .
49 specimens (77.7%) gave positive bacterial cultures from totally (63 samples). The double mode of isolation has a highly rate of 34.6%.
Activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of
The biggest inhibition zone (20mm) recorded for 1000mcg /ml of
The MICs in all extracts ranged between 200-800 mcg / ml .
We also used some standard antibiotics to compare their activities with the activity of plant extracts.
The conjunctiva is a mucous membrane which covers the under surface of the lids and is reflected from the lids to cover part of the eye ball up to the margin of the cornea. (jain ,1990 ) .
In spite of natural protective mechanism of the conjunctiva in the from of low temperature due to the exposure to the air, presence of enzymes in the tears called lysozyme (which have definite anti-bacterial property) and the mechanical action of blinking and flushing action of the lacirmal secretion, the conjunctival sac my be infected with pathogenic organisms causing infective conjunctivitis. ( soy , 1995 )
The choice of an antimicrobial is not only influenced by the type and susceptibility of the infecting organism, but also by the mode of action and the pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics, the severity and localization of the infections, the liver and kidney functions as well as the age of the patient. When more than one antibiotic is used, a part from the spectrum of the individual antibiotic, synergism and antagonism must be kept in mind.( smith , etal 1997 ) .
Many advanced studies such as ( Aggarwal., etal. ,1992. , Fok , etal. , 1995 ., Harris , etal. , 1996 , Duch , etal ., 1997 ., and Zaidi , etal ., 1999 ) were interested in conjunctivitis and studied this disease and causative agents from various views .
Because there are no local study on conjunctivitis the aims of this study are determination the major bacterial types causing conjunctivitis and study of efficiency of some plant extracts from
Material and methods
A total of 63 specimens were collected from patients with conjunctivitis ( under supervision of ophthalmologist Dr. Abdul amir kassim) from saddam teaching hospital , collected by sterile swab.
Brain heart infusion was added to the samples for 18-24 hrs for enrichment, and then three media were used for isolation, blood, nutrient, and macConkey agar.
The identification of various bacterial pathogens were carried out depend on routine laboratory techniques ( Finegold and Baron , 1986 ) .
All cultures were incubated aerobically in incubator for 24 hrs on 37 C. All media were sterilized by autoclave (1.5 pond /cm3 ) for 15 minutes. All glass wares were sterilized by oven ( 180-200 C ) for 2 hrs .
Two plant were used in this study:
That is wide and common distributed in all regions of AL – Basrah city , various aqueous and alcoholic concentrations ( 100 , 250 , 500 , 750 , 1000 mcg / ml ) of leaves and fruit. Extracts from each plants were prepared according to ( AL – Saimary , 1999) , and sterilized by Millipore filter technique ( diameter 25 mm, pore size 0.45 ?m ).
Eight Antibiotics ( as Antibiotics disc ) were used for comparison their effects : Penicillin G (10 units ) , Chloramphenicyl (c) (30 mcg) , Cophalexin (CE) 30 mcg , Cloxacillin (30 mcg ) , Tetracyclin (TE ) 30 mcg , Neomycin (N) 30 mcg , Methicilline (30 mcg ), and Gentamicin (CN) 10 mcg . Antibiotics disc supplied from Himedia Co. India.
Evaluation the antibacterial activity
Plant (agar diffuim) method was used to evaluated antibacterial activity of plant extracts and antibiotics on growth of bacterial types isolated from conjunctivitis patients to determine growth inhibition zones (mm) by using mueller – hinton agar .
Tub ( dilution ) method was used to determine minimal inhibitory concentration MICS . ( mcglml ) by using brain heart infusion of plant extracts .
Results and discussion
Our. results revealed a highly infected conjunctivitis (77.7%) with various species of aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria (87 isolates). Double mode of isolated bacterial types are predominant in 34.6 % from the cases followed by other modes .
Other studies revealed that any organisms which affects the mucous membrane any where in the body, can also invade the conjunctiva. According to the frequency the common organisms which affect the conjunctiva and cause a conjunctivitis are coagulate positive staphylococci, bacilli which are ting gram negative bacilli. Adenomas can also cause conjunctivitis sometimes in epidemic form (Fok., etal ., 1995 ., Pitaksiripan ,etal ., 1995 ., Fleiszing ., etal., 1996 )
The pathologic markers occur in conjunctivitis due to looseness of epithelium particularly of the bulbar conjunctiva and that of the for mix the exudate containing fibrin and leucocytes comes to the surface in the form of discharge. Also, the superficial cells, which form the second line of defense (first line being formed by the leucocytes) phagocytes are invading agents and are themselves desquamated. The basal layer of the cells proliferates and make up the deficiency .( Jain ,1990 )
Other studies supported results of our study that the same bacteria were associated with conjunctivitis (Harris , etal ., 1996 , Duch ., etal ., 1997 ., Iroha , etal .,1998, Friedlaender ., 1998 . and Zaidi , etal ., 1999 )