Comparison Of Prevalence And Antimicrobial Sensitivity Of Salmonella typhimurium In Apparently Healthy Cattle And Goat In Sango-Ota, Nigeria
F Alao, C Kester, B Gbagba, F Fakilede
antibiotic susceptibility, cattle, goat, isolates, reservoir, salmonella typhimurium, salmonellosis, sango-ota
F Alao, C Kester, B Gbagba, F Fakilede. Comparison Of Prevalence And Antimicrobial Sensitivity Of Salmonella typhimurium In Apparently Healthy Cattle And Goat In Sango-Ota, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2012 Volume 10 Number 2.
Direct cattle-to-cattle contact from other herds can also result in the introduction of
Effective Antimicrobial therapy reduces morbidity and mortality from
Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the role play by cattle and goat in this environment as reservoirs of
Materials and Methods
Sample collection/Study design
A total of 157 samples of fresh faeces of cattle and goats were collected and processed. The samples were collected from six sites in Ota: 29 samples from the Cattle Ranch at Toll Gate Abattoir (Study Site 1), 33 samples from Temperance (Study Site 2), 35 samples from Sifor (Study Site 3), 10 samples from Benja (Study Site 4), while 25 samples from Goat Markets at Oju-Ore (Study Site 5) and 25 samples from Sona (Study Site 6). All these were collected in a sterile Universal bottle, stored in ice packs and transported immediately to the Microbiology Laboratory in Bells University of Technology, Ota within two hours for microbiological analysis. The samples were collected from different sites based on the frequency of defecation by the animals. The name was assigned to each of the study sites based on the common name given to their locations.
A loopful of the faecal samples was inoculated aseptically into a McCartney bottle containing 9ml of selenite F broth (Oxoid). The sample was incubated for 24 hours at 37C. After incubation, a loopful of selenite F broth culture of the faeces was aseptically streaked on
Colonies from all samples were then streaked on Nutrient agar in order to obtain pure culture. These colonies were then transferred onto a Kliger Iron agar slant (Oxoid), after which they were subjected to Gram-staining, citrate utilisation testing, sulphide-indole-motility testing, and sugar utilisation testing. Gram negative short motile rods with characteristic red slope and yellow butt reaction with production of gas and H2S on KIA were reported as
Antibiotic sensitivity testing
The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), disc-diffusion method was used for antibiotic sensitivity testing (CLSI, 2005).
Turbidity of the inoculums of various isolates of enterobacteria is compared with 0. 5 McFarland standard and each of the isolates were inoculated onto the surface of a sterile nutrient agar plates using a sterile swab in order to ensure even distribution of the inoculums, the plates were allowed to dry and Antibiotic discs with concentrations were placed on the surface of the agar plates. The antimicrobial discs include the following. Amoxicillin (30µg), Augmentin (30µg), Pefloxacin (10µg), Ofloxacin (5µg), Gentamicin (10µg), Ciprofloxacin (10µg), Cefotaxime (30µg), ceftazidime (30µg), Cefuroxime (30µg), Streptomycin (30µg), Erythromycin (10µg), Ampicillin (30µg), Cotrimoxazole (25µg), Nalidixic acid (30µg), Nitrofurantoin (300µg), Tetracycline (15µg). After 30 mins of applying the disc, the plates were inverted and incubated for 24 hours at 37 o C. The clear zone that developed around each disc were measured as the zones of inhibition from underneath each plate with the aid of a ruler in centimeter and converted to millimeter (mm) and on the basis of CLSI guidelines.
The chi-square test was employed to compare the prevalence of
A total number of one hundred and fifty-seven fresh faecal samples were analysed from herds of cattle and goat in different locations in Ota, Ogun State. These bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics on various media and their ability to ferment various Carbohydrates.
Of the 157 samples analysed, 22 (14%) were positive for
The distribution of the isolates recovered from the faecal samples obtained from the six study sites is as follows: from the study site 1, a total of 29 isolates were obtained representing-3 (10.3%)
Therefore, samples from various study sites recorded a prevalence of 13.6%
The antibiotic sensitivity test showed that
In this study, 22 (14%)
This study was therefore conducted to determine and compare the prevalence and the antimicrobial susceptibility of
This study detected that the prevalence of
The low occurrence of
The moderately low occurrence of
The high incidence of
The low occurrence of
The 22% incidence of
Sites five and six also had a low prevalence of
Epidemiological surveillance of antimicrobial-resistant of
All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, amoxicillin, augmentin, cotrimoxazole, tetracycline, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, and cefotaxime. This high level of resistance to these treatment drugs, corroborate the submission of Smith and co-workers, (2006) that, it is because of the across-the-counter purchase and street hawking of these drugs that still exist in this environment, thereby allowing easy access to these drugs and possibility of resistant strains. Therefore, the use of these antibiotics would lead to treatment failure and probably lead to development of resistant strains of
In conclusion, the findings of this study have established that cows and goats are the true reservoirs of
All the isolates were sensitive to quinolones proving that these antibiotics will still remain the drug of choice for the management of salmonellosis in this environment. Therefore, adequate health education should be put in place to guide against indiscriminate use of quinolones antibiotics in order to prevent drug resistance by these organisms.