P Chauhan, S Kushwaha
biodiversity, bioinformatics approaches, bioprospecting, phylogenetic analysis, valuable compounds
P Chauhan, S Kushwaha. Bioinformatics Approach For Conservation Of Fauna and Flora Through Bioprospecting. The Internet Journal of Genomics and Proteomics. 2008 Volume 5 Number 1.
Varieties of valuable compounds like- cosmetics are extracted from various animals. Many companies have catered to this expanding market of cosmetics by introducing various makeup types for which they use vibrant colors that are derived from some unexpected sources, ranging from crusted insects to rust, which is responsible for diminution of biodiversity. Therefore there is a strong need to look for alternative source for these compounds (Bioprospecting). In this paper, a bioinformatics approach has been used to analyze the molecular evolution of known valuable compounds like anthraquinone by analysis of pathway and construction of phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis provides new horizons for this type of study and shows their worthwhile by giving the answers of their origin, development and other characteristics. The phylogenetic analysis of enzymes was incorporated to know, which species are related and which one is the ancestral species. Bioinformatics database, tools and software which were used in the paper are NCBI, KEGG, BLAST, MULTALIN, PHYLIP.After tracing phylogeny of enzymes involved in anthracene degradation pathway,both the enzymes showed ancestral relationship with
Anthraquinones naturally occur in some plants (eg. Aloe) fungi, lichens and insects where they serve as a basic skeleton for their pigments. Hegnauer (1959); Thomson (1987); Teusher and Lindequist (1994). Large numbers of dyes are obtained from insects like Galerucinin, Sermylini, Luperinin species. Hilker and schulz (1991). Due to increase in cosmetic demand, these insects are exploited rapidly to economically obtain dyes from them. But due to awareness caused by animal protection groups and allergies caused by the dyes have drawn the interest of researchers toward the use of anthraquinones of plant origin. BioNetmat proposal (2005)
In plants two main biosynthetic pathways leading to anthraquinone production are
Shikimate/ Chorismate pathway
These pathways are yet not fully understood. The precursors and enzymes involved in these pathways for anthraquinone production are still to be worked out experimentally.
Anthraquinone is a derivative of anthracene, it belongs to the family of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and is not a friendly chemical. It is a severe irritant and sensitiser, both to the skin and eyes, and when taken orally it causes severe damage to the liver, kidneys and mucous membranes. Upon inhalation, severe lung damages occur so anthraquinone production in laboratories is risky. Hans & Elzbieta Brand (2006).Therefore anthracene degradation pathway can be an approach to predict new sources for production of anthraquinone in plants (Figure 2). The anthracene degradation pathway involves two enzymes. Oxidoreductase (EC 1.14.-.- ) acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen and Oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.- ) acting on CH-OH groups of donors.
Recently Scientists have proved that octaketide synthase is responsible for anthraquinone production in plants. Abe et al. (2005), Morita et al. (2007). (Figure 3)
In this paper an attempt has been made to predict alternative source for anthraquinone mainly of plant origin, so as to conserve the insects from exploitation and extinction through Bioprospecting. It is one of the prominent areas of research of commercial important compounds, which is not only providing alternative source for these compounds but also improving the quality of products and cost effective extraction. In the present study enzymes involved in anthracene degrading pathway and octaketide synthase are selected to look for plant based anthraquinones.
Material and Methods
The nucleotide sequences of all enzymes involved in the pathways were taken from NCBI- GenBank and KEGG. The most similar sequences for each enzyme were searched through BLASTn. Now, the most similar sequences for all enzymes were collected and multiple sequence alignment for all of the enzymes were done using MULTALIN web interface. PHYLIP web interface was then used to generate the outtree files in newick format using neighbor joining method through neighbor program.
Results and Discussion
Oxidoreductase; acting on paired donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (EC 1.14.-.- ) was found in
Potato stolon, Cornell University
Tomato nutrient deficient roots
Drought Stress Panicle Library
Ornamental tobacco (LxS8) post-fertilization Floral nectary cDNA library
Oxidoreductase; Acting on CH-OH groups of donors (EC 1.1.- ) was found in Oryza sativa species. (Figure 5). This enzyme was present in different varieties of
Octaketide synthase [
Pentaketide chromone synthase [
Chalcone synthase (Naringenin-chalcone synthase).
Aromatic polyketide synthase [
Chalcone synthase [
Chalcone synthase [
Root-specific chalcone synthase [
Since both the enzymes of Anthracene degradation pathway to obtain Anthraquinone, were present in
On the other hand the enzyme Octaketide synthase responsible for anthraquinone production in plants present in
Applying the same methodology a list of alternative source of various valuable compounds is also given. An attempt has been made to find alternative sources for 14 different valuable compounds from terpenoid (3), diterpenoid (2), indole & ipacac alkaloid (5), phenyl propanoid biosynthesis (5) pathways