Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection Among Pregnant Women In South-Eastern Nigeria: The Public Health Significance
C Uneke, C Ugwuoru, E Ali, M Ali
infection, pregnancy, prevalence, trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis
C Uneke, C Ugwuoru, E Ali, M Ali. Trichomonas Vaginalis Infection Among Pregnant Women In South-Eastern Nigeria: The Public Health Significance. The Internet Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2005 Volume 6 Number 1.
There is paucity of scientific information on the epidemiology, diagnosis and prevention of trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Nigeria. Using the spun urinalysis, a cross-sectional survey of
In the sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, trichomoniasis has neither been the focus of intensive study nor of active control programs, and this neglect is likely a function of the relatively mild nature of the disease (5). However, in addition to the association of
There is paucity of information on the association of socio-demographic parameters and obstetric history with
The study location was Abakaliki the capital city of Ebonyi State, South-eastern Nigeria, with a population size of about 255,752. The study was conducted at the five major hospitals in the city with facility for antenatal care. The hospitals include: Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH), Holy Child Hospital and Maternity (HCHM), Felly-Sussy Memorial Hospital (FSMH), St. Theresa's Hospital and Maternity (STHM), and Mgbodo Specialist Hospital and Maternity (MSHM). Heterosexual intercourse is the predominant sexual behaviour in the area and the prevalence rates of HIV infection and syphilis among women attending ante-natal clinics (ANCs) in the area were 4.6% and 1.0% respectively (8).
Study Population /Sampling Technique
The study was conducted form January 2005 - June 2005 among pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic at the selected hospitals. Approval for the study was obtained from the Research/Ethical Committees of the five hospitals. Approval for this study was also obtained from the Infectious Disease Research Unit of the Faculty of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University Abakaliki. The approval was on the agreement that patient anonymity must be maintained, good laboratory practice/quality control ensured, and that every finding would be treated with utmost confidentiality and for the purpose of this research only.
The study was thus, an anonymous, unlinked, cross-sectional survey and following informed consent, 502 pregnant women were enrolled into the study. All the women were married and were attending the clinics for the first time in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information and obstetric history were obtained from participants by interview. Thereafter, each subject was given a wide mouthed, leak-proof universal specimen container and was instructed on how to collect her own urine sample. About 20mls of urine sample was obtained from each participant. For the purpose of the research, no personal identifiers (names, ID number, address, etc) were used on the urine sample of the participant. Instead bar-coded numbers were used to ensure anonymity of subjects, to facilitate laboratory procedures and minimize the chances of errors during the handling of the urine specimens.
Microscopic examination of wet mount preparations of the urine samples was done to detect
Differences in proportion were evaluated using the chi-square test. Statistical significant was achieved if
Of the total of 502 pregnant women studied, aged 20-40 years old (mean age 28.1 years), laboratory analysis confirmed
Women in their third trimester of pregnancy were significantly more infected with
Antenatal screening and treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have proved beneficial in countries where the practice is adopted. However there are indications that treatment of
The prevalence of
The wet mount microscopy is used routinely in most settings in Nigeria for
In this study, age-related prevalence of
Nearly all the subjects classified as business women were traders and they were more infected with
Parity and pregnancy trimester were related to
In conclusion, as a public health measure, routine surveillance of trichomoniasis among women of child bearing age and prompt treatment of infected individuals are recommended. The control and prevention of trichomoniasis could also be enhanced by targeting the sexual partners of infected women for treatment and risk-reduction health education.
We wish to thank the managements of Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Holy Child Hospital and Maternity, Felly-Sussy Memorial Hospital, St. Theresa's Hospital and Maternity, and Mgbodo Specialist Hospital and Maternity, all in Abakaliki, for logistical support.
C. J. Uneke Department of Medical Microbiology/Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Ebonyi State University, PMB 053 Abakaliki, Nigeria. Tel: 234-08038928597, Fax: 234-04300222, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org