Predominantly muscular eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
R Naik, V Joshipura, N Patel, S Patwari, M Bhavsar
ascites, eosinophilia, eosinophilic gastroenteritis
R Naik, V Joshipura, N Patel, S Patwari, M Bhavsar. Predominantly muscular eosinophilic gastroenteritis with ascites: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. The Internet Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008 Volume 7 Number 2.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is a rare pathologic entity characterised by eosinophilic infiltration of the wall of the gastrointestinal tract and manifests various dysfunctions of GI tract. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion and exclusion of other disorders that are associated with peripheral eosinophilia. We report a case of a patient, who presented with abdominal pain and ascites and on diagnostic work up turned out to be a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis with predominantly muscular propria type of eosinophilic infiltration. Presentation with ascites is very rare with such type. Our patient was successfully treated with corticosteroid administration.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis, first reported by Kaijser 1 in 1937, is a rare gastrointestinal disorder that can present with various gastrointestinal manifestations, depending on the specific site of the affected gastrointestinal wall. Klein
A 45 year male Muslim patient presented with complains of abdominal distension, occasional vomiting, high grade intermittent fever and increased frequency of stool for one month. He did not have any significant history of other illness. He had mixed diet with normal appetite and no allergy to any food items. He had no positive findings on the general examination. In abdominal examination abdomen was distended, soft, no tenderness, no guarding and no rigidity, liver and spleen were not palpable, s/o intra abdominal free fluid were present. On per rectal examination fullness was appreciated. He was evaluated with CBC, in which total counts rose to 15291/cmm, absolute eosinophilic counts were 8410/cmm that is 55% of total WBC counts. His urine analysis, renal functions and liver functions were normal. His X ray chest showed right pleural effusion and abdomen standing showed ground glass appearance with few air fluid bowel loops. His ultrasound abdomen and thorax s/o moderate ascites and thickened bowel loops. His CT scan confirmed the USG findings and additionally showed diffuse thickened mucosal folds in non dilated almost entire small bowel loops. Diagnostic ascitic tapping was done which was reddish yellow turbid fluid; TC was 8060cells/cmm in which polymorphs 90% and lymphocytes 10%. Smear with gram stain and Z-N stain were negative. Ascitic fluid culture was negative. Ascitic fluid Adenosine De Aminase was negative. On cytological examination no malignant cells were seen. He had undergone upper GI scopy and sigmoidoscopy to rule out infiltrative disease and storage disease which were not conclusive on histopathology. Then it was decided to take full thickness biopsy from the bowel, peritoneum and from the liver through diagnostic laparoscopy. On laparoscopy there was moderate ascites with diffusely dilated small bowel. Biopsies were taken from liver, peritoneum and jejunum. On histopathological examination liver tissue found normal, peritoneal biopsy showed infiltration of the tissue by chronic inflammatory cells along with many eosinophils; jejunal biopsy consists chiefly of the muscularis propria which is infiltrated by many eosinophils. Thus his diagnosed was confirmed of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. He was prescribed prednisolone 20mg once a day for 6 weeks and then tapered off. His ascites was relieved within 15 days, clinical improvement noted within one month and he was followed for one year after stoppage of the drug and he did not show any symptoms.
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis was first reported by Kaijser 1 in 1937. In 1970, Klein 2 classified the disease according to the predominance of eosinophilic infiltration in different layers of the intestinal wall. Talley
Sudhanshu I. Patwari, Mahendra S. Bhavsar managed the patient , Rahul P. Naik prepared the manuscript and figures; Vismit P. Joshipura and Nitin R. Patel revised the manuscript.