R Rohini, N Nayeem, A Das
diuretic, fenugreek, frueosmide, naliuretic
R Rohini, N Nayeem, A Das. Diuretic effect of Trigonella foenum graecum seed extracts. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008 Volume 6 Number 2.
Nature has provided a complete storehouse of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind in which plant kingdom plays a major role. Fenugreek has a long history in Chinese medicines and in ayurveda; the seeds have been used for numerous indications, including labor induction, aiding digestion and to improve metabolism 1 . The seed extract has shown antinoceptic 2, antidiabetic 3, antioxidant 4 , hypoglycaemic 5,6, antiulcer and gastroprotectivity 7,8 , anti-hyperlipimedic activity. 9 Previous phytochemical study have revealed the presence alkaloids trigonellie and choline, the leaves contain diasogenin, a saponin and furostanol glycoside.
Materials and method
Values are expressed as mean ± S.E. (n = 6). * P<0.05 and * * P<0.01
Results and discussion
Significant increase in the volume of urine was seen at 150 mg/kg (p<0.05) and 350 mg/kg (p<0.01) and dose dependent increase in the excretion of electrolyte was exhibited from petroleum ether, benzene chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of fenugreek seeds respectively. Frueosmide treated rats showed a significant increase in volume of urine and marked increase in excretion of sodium, potassium and chloride (p< 0.01) compared to control.
Diuretics are developed for treatment of sodium and water retention in edematous disorders and clinically, they remain the most potent drugs available to relieve symptoms and eliminate edema in the congested patient with heart failure. In the non-congested patient, however, diuretics continue to be used on a purely clinical basis potential to influence on mortality. Diuretics have important role in treatment of hypertension they are useful in reducing the syndrome of volume overload, including orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea. They decrease plasma volume and subsequently venous pressure to the heart. Thereby decrease cardiac workload oxygen demand and plasma volume, thus decrease blood pressure 12 . In the present study, it was observed that the successive extracts of fenugreek seeds, showed a dose dependent increase urine output along with increase in excretion of Na+, K+, and Cl - ions when compared with the control. The increase in the ratio of concentration of excreted sodium and potassium ion from the aqueous extract, compared to control, is a very essential quality of a good diuretic with less hyperkalaemic side effect.
The study supports the diuretic effect of fenugreek seed as traditionally claimed. The active phytochemicals terpenoids, alkaloid, flavonoid, steroidal glycoside are known to be responsible for diuretic activity 13,14 .These active constituent present in the fenugreek seed extracts may be responsible for diuretic and naliuretic activity which is prominently exhibited from benzene and aqueous extract.
The authors are thankful to Prof Suresh Nagpal, Chairman, Krupanidhi Trust of Education and Prof Sunil D, Head Department of Pharmacology for their encouragement and support.