Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Sheep And Goats In And Around Bedelle, South-Western Ethiopia
M Tefera, G Batu, M Bitew
bedelle, egg count, gastrointestinal parasites, goats, sheep
M Tefera, G Batu, M Bitew. Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Parasites Of Sheep And Goats In And Around Bedelle, South-Western Ethiopia. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2009 Volume 8 Number 2.
A study on GIT parasites of small ruminants was conducted from November 2007 to May 2008 in and around Bedelle with the objectives to determine the major GIT parasites and their prevalence in sheep and goats. In this study, a total of 384 fecal samples (219 sheep and 165 goats) were collected for qualitative and quantitative fecal examinations and 43 post mortem examinations in butcher house (23 sheep and 20 goats) were performed. The study found that 200 (91.32%) sheep and 153 (93.29%) goats were found to harbor eggs of GIT helminthes. Amongst the post mortem examinations performed, 21 (91.30%) sheep and 19 (95%) goats were found to be infected with two or more of GIT helminth parasites. All species and age groups were infected with identical parasite species, but with different levels of infection. Eight genera of nematodes with prevalence of 67.5%
Sheep and goats are mainly found in arid and semi- arid areas of sub-Saharan Africa. They play a vital role in rural economies through the provision of meat, milk, household income, manure and skin. Compared to cattle and camels, sheep and goats contribute a larger proportion of readily available meat in the diets of pastoralists. They have been estimated to provide up to 30% of the meat and 15% of the milk supplies in sub-Saharan Africa where thrive in a wide range of ecological regions often in conditions too harsh for the beneficial rearing of cattle. Small ruminants have also been reported to survive better under drought conditions than cattle due to their low body mass and low metabolic requirements which in turn minimize their water requirements and maintenance needed in arid and semi-arid areas. The frequent droughts and large tsetse infected areas in sub-Saharan Africa requires more small ruminants in order to supplement cattle production (Wesongah
The estimated 25.01 million of sheep and 21.9 million of goats in Ethiopia (CSA, 2009) provide an important contribution to the national economy (Alemayehu
Stomach and intestinal worms occur in all species of animals. Young and malnourished animals of both sexes and lactating animals are most suitable to these parasites. Stomach worms affect specially camels, goats and sheep. Different types of worms are transmitted when an animal eats grass or drinks water contaminated with larva or eggs. The problem is especially common in the rainy season (IIRR, 1996).
Even though, Ethiopia endowed with large number of sheep and goats population, little attempts has been made in the past to study the health aspect of these animals. Lack of well established data on the magnitude, distribution and predisposing factors of small ruminant GIT helminthes in the study area initiated this study project. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to identify the major GIT parasites of small ruminants and to determine the prevalence of those parasites in the study area in relation to different risk factors.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted from November 2007 to May 2008 in Bedelle Wereda, Oromia Regional State, Illubabor Zone. The area is located in an altitude of 2060 m.a.s.l. The mean annual rainfall of the area is 1857.7mm and the mean annual minimum and maximum temperatures are 12.4C and 24.6C respectively. Natural broad leaf forests and grasslands cover non-cultivated lands in the area. The main farming system in the area is mixed farming and small ruminants are the third most abundant animal species kept next to poultry and cattle (NMSA, 2010).
From a total of 21,160 small ruminants present in and around Bedelle Wereda (CSA, 2009) a sample size of 384 sheep and goats were randomly selected and subjected to qualitative and quantitative corpological examination. Out of which, sheep and goats comprised 219 (56.6%) and 165 (43.4%) respectively. All species, sex and age groups of local origin were included in this study. Adults are above one year and young are less than one year was considered in the study according to Tewdros (2007).
Sample Size and Sampling Method
Simple random sampling strategy was followed to collect feces from the individual animals. The sample size was decided based on formula described by Thrusfield (2005) with 95% confidence interval at 5% desired absolute precision and by assuming the expected prevalence of 50%. The estimated sample size was 384.
Cross-sectional study method was followed in this study. Fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum of the each animal or during defecation with strict sanitation and placed in air and water tight vials and then taken to the laboratory. In the laboratory the samples were subjected to modified floatation and McMaster and to identify and egg count of GIT parasites following the standard procedures. Positive fecal samples were subjected to McMaster egg counting technique and the degree of infection was categorized based on Soulsby (1982) and Urquhart
All the data that were collected (age, species and degree parasitic infection) entered to MS excel sheet and analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of the parasites and Chi-square test (χ2) was used to look the significant difference between age and species of the host with parasites. In all the analyses, confidence level was held at 95% and P<0.05 were set for significance.
Out of 384 animals (219 sheep and 165 goats) examined, 353 (91.9%) were harboring one or more GIT parasites. With respect to the species prevalence of GIT parasites, 200 (91.3%) sheep and 153 (93.8%) goats were found to harbor one or more parasites. In this study species, sex and age were considered as risk factors and revealed no significant difference (P>0.05) with the variation in species, age and sex of the animals (Table 1).
The degree (severity) of parasitic infection was determined from the total fecal egg count. A total of 338 fecal samples were subjected to EPG count by using McMaster egg counting chamber and found 137 (40.53%) were lightly, 164 (48.52%) moderately and 37 (10.95%) massively affected. An attempt was also made to see the existence of significant difference in degree of parasitic infection with the variation of species, sex and age of the animals. However, it was found that no significant difference (P >0.05) in the EPG count with the variation of risk factors (Table 2).
Postmortem examinations were conducted in some butcher houses and restaurants to appreciate the adult parasites and to relate the coprological findings with the postmortem findings. The total number of animal examined was 43 (23 sheep and 20 goats). From these 21 sheep and 19 goats harbored one or more adult parasites. The overall prevalence of GIT parasites during postmortem examination was 93.01% (40) and the species level prevalence was 91.30% (21) and 95% (19) in sheep and goats respectively.
In this study ten types of GIT helminth parasites were identified during the study period based on their morphology described by Soulsby (1982) and Urquhart
The present study found that the prevalence of GIT helminthes was 91.32% and 93.29% and at post mortem analysis 91.30% and 95% in sheep and goats respectively. This result coincides with the results of (Gebreyesus, 1986; Esayas, 1988; Tesfalem, 1989; Melkamu, 1991; Bayou, 1992; Yoseph, 1993; Genene, 1994; Getachew, 1998; Hailelul, 2002). They have reported a prevalence of 96.38% in goats of Ogaden range lands, 90.41% and 82.13% in sheep and goats in and around Wolayita Soddo, 88.1% and 84.32% in sheep and goats in and around Mekele, 91.43% in sheep in and around Kombolcha, 90.94% and 94.85% in sheep and goats of Gonder, 92.23% and 94.1% in sheep and goats of Mendayo district of Bale, 93.22% and 92.24% in sheep and goats of four Awrajas of Eastern Shoa, 90.23% and 88.33% in sheep and goats of Buno province and 85.79% in sheep in and around Asella respectively.
Out of 338 sampled shoats 10.95% massively, 48.52% moderately, and 40.53% were lightly affected. There is no significant difference in EPG among different age groups, sex and species. Majority of infected animals had fecal egg count in the range of 50-800 EPG and only few proportions of animals had fecal egg count over 1200. This is inline with Amenu (2005) and Hailelul (2002) who reported higher prevalences of 94.29% and 86.67% with a mean EPG of 1045.8 and 1016 in sheep and goats respectively. The maintenance of high infection rates of GIT helminthes in shoats in the study areas was associated with the presence of favorable environmental conditions for the existence and development of the parasitic GIT helminthes larvae.
Out of 43(23 sheep and 20 goats) post mortem examination performed, 21 (91.30%) sheep and 19 (95%) goats were found affected with one or more of helminthes. This was agreed with Yoseph (1993) who reported 93.33% in sheep of Asella, Dereje (1992) who reported 9(90%) sheep and 10(98.18%) in goats in and around Wolaita Sodo, Genene (1994) 100% in sheep and goats of northern Omo, and Hailelul (2002) who reported prevalence of 100% and 95.24% in sheep and goats in and around Wollaita Soddo.
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Conclusions and recommendations
The present study conducted on small ruminant GIT helminthosis in and around Bedelle area shows that GIT helminthosis of shoats are the most prevalent disease in the area affecting the well being of the animals. During the present study an overall prevalence of 91.32% and 93.89% coroscopically and 91.30% and 95% by postmortem examination in sheep and goats respectively were harboring one or more GIT parasites. Species, age and sex were considered as risk factors; however there is no significant difference in the prevalence of the parasite due to these risk factors. EPG analysis was undertaken to know the degree of infection. Of the 338 animals examined 137(40.53%) were lightly, 164 (48.52%) moderately and 37(10.95%) massively affected. From the above findings and conclusive remarks the following recommendations are forwarded:
To get clear epidemiological picture of GIT parasitic helminth, comprehensive study should be launched in the area where sheep and goats are abundant and practically participating in cash incomes, sources of food, skin and manure to farming communities and play significant role in these sector.
Strategic treatment is appropriate, effective and broad spectrum anthelmintic should be practice at the beginning and after the end of the rainy season. Such treatment regime is strategic to get rid of the parasites burden of the animals and minimize pasture contamination by dropping fecal egg count.
Additionally, the field veterinarians and stockowners should be aware of the importance and burden of GIT helminthosis in sheep and goats.
The authors would like to thank Jimma University, College Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine for financial support to execute this research work. It is also our pleasure to extend our gratitude to Veterinary Parasitology laboratory, Bedelle Regional Laboratory for its technical and material support in the realization of this study.