G Shanthi, G Vijay kanth, L Hitesh, M Ganesan
aspirin, c- reactive protein, cissus quadrangularis, ulcer lesions
G Shanthi, G Vijay kanth, L Hitesh, M Ganesan. Antiulcerogenic activities of the Methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis in wistar. The Internet Journal of Toxicology. 2009 Volume 7 Number 2.
Always there has been renewed interest in identifying new antiulcer drugs from natural sources (Brito
Cissus quadrangular is
Materials and methods
The collected plant stem was shade dried and coarsely powdered .About 1 kg of the powdered material was soaked in methanol for 48 h and extracted by soxhlet extraction. The extract was vacuum dried and was stored at −4◦C until further use.
Male albino Wistar rats weighing 120–150 g, (Source: Micro Therapeutic Research Labs, Pvt, Ltd, Chennai) were acclimatized for 7 days and randomized into 4 groups of six each. Animals were housed in polypropylene cages with 12h light and 12h dark photoperiod. Temperature and humidity were maintained between 18 and 25 ◦C and 30 and 70 % respectively. Animals were supplied with standard pelleted feed and filtered water
The experiment was conducted as per CPCSEA guidelines and the study was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical committee.
Of the 4 randomized groups, group I - Control animals received only the corn oil; Group II -Animals received aspirin (400 mg/kg.b.w). Where as the group III and IV animals were treated with ranitidine (30 mg/kg.b.w.) and CQE (1000 mg/kg.b.w.) respectively for seven days orally. After last dosing, all animals were fasted for 16h and then group III and group IV animals treated with ranitidine (30 mg/kg.b.w.), CQE (1000 mg/kg.b.w.) respectively. Thirty minutes later Group II, III and IV animals were treated with Aspirin (400 mg/kg) orally. After 6 h all animals were sacrificed and subjected for anti- ulcerative effect. The maximum dose volume of 10 ml/Kg.b.w was maintained for all groups animals.
Rationale for selection of doses
The dose for CQE, Aspirin and Ranitidine was selected based on the literature (Kamsiah
Macroscopic& Microscopic evaluation
Six hours after the aspirin administration, blood was collected retro-orbitally from all animals and sacrificed by CO2 inhalation. Serum was separated from the collected blood and subjected to C-reactive protein estimation by latex agglutination method. The stomach were opened along the greater curvature, rinsed with saline to remove gastric contents and blood clots and examined through magnifying lens to assess the ulcer index as per (Obi
The stomach region from each group animals was collected and fixed in 10% formalin solution 48 h and embedded in paraffin, sectioned with 4 µm thick obtained, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and examined under light microscope.
Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test using SAS package version 9.1.3
Results and Discussion
In all groups none of the animals exhibited clinical signs of toxicity. Macroscopic examination in aspirin induced animals showed multiple gastric mucosal lesions, most often 1–3 mm in size or petechial and bleeding at the moment of the observation as compared with control animals (p<0.01) whereas the CQE and ranitidine pretreated group animals showed one or two gastric mucosal lesion with 0.05 to 1.00 mm in size without any bleeding and thus lowered the ulcer index values significantly (p<0.01) from aspirin treated animals (
Microscopic observation of aspirin treated animals showed numerous ulcer craters with severe infiltration of inflammatory cells, Cellular swelling along with infiltration of neutrophils in sub mucosa when compared with control group animals with normal appearance of gastric mucosa with gastric glands. The gastric glands in CQE and ranitidine pretreated group animals showed more or less pattern similar to control group animals (
The incidences of anti-inflammatory drugs grows the gastric ulcer lesions incidences (Belaiche
It is generally accepted that gastric ulcers result from an imbalance between aggressive factors and the maintenance of the mucosal integrity through endogenous defense mechanisms (Szabo
The results clearly elucidate the anti-ulcerative property of CQE since a significant inhibition in the formation of gastric lesions; with histological evident is presented in aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats. Even though there is no significant difference observed between the ranitidine and CQE treated animals for the anti-ulcerative index, the CQE found to have better protective effect by both macroscopic and microscopic examinations.
In the C-reactive protein estimation, a prominent agglutination was appeared in the serum of aspirin treated animals where no such agglutination appearance was observed in the other groups of experimental animals. The C-reactive protein concentration is a marker for systemic inflammation (Ross, 1999).
Values are expressed as Mean ± SD.
ANOVA F = (81.56) (p<0.01) for the ulcer index. Dunnet test: ** (p<0.01) compared to the control group.
In conclusion, CQE revealed better protective effects against gastric ulceration induced by aspirin. The isolation of active principles detailed study on various other parameters of mucosal defensive factors provides a new alterative natural source of remedy for the clinical management of the gastric ulcers problems.