P Jafferey, H Rathore
cadmium, genotoxicity tannins, mitosis
P Jafferey, H Rathore. Antigenotoxic Potential of Terminalia chebula fruit (myrobalan) Against Cadmium in Allium Test. The Internet Journal of Toxicology. 2006 Volume 4 Number 1.
Allium cepa bulbs were grown in pure tap water (Group I) and in five concentrations (10-1M to 10-5M) alone (Group II) and all five concentration of cadmium chloride as in group II but each contained myrobalan in it at 0.10 mg/ml (Group III). Parameters of study were mean root length, mitotic index, abnormal mitosis and chromosomal aberrations and morphology of root tips. Cadmium chloride exposure significantly inhibited root growth, declined mitotic index, caused abnormal mitosis and aberrations (Group II). In the presence of myrobalan (Group III) cadmium-induced mitodepression, abnormal mitosis and aberrations could be appreciably prevented. No morphological changes in the root tips of any group could be noticed. Probable protective role of myrobalan is discussed.
Cadmium is environmental pollutant which is both genotoxic (1,2,3) and carcinogenic (4) for human beings and occupationally exposed people are at potentially high health risk (5). Reports on antagonistic herbal compounds towards cadmium toxicity are meager. One report showed cytoprotective role of
Material and Methods
Equal sized (1.5 to 2.00 cm) healthy dry brown pink onion bulbs of commercial variety onions (2n=16) were obtained from the local market.
Test herbal drug
Dried young nuts of medicinal plant
Selection of Dose of myrobalan
Earlier studies from this laboratory (12) had revealed that myrobalan at 0.1 mg/ml concentration did not exert any ill effect. Hence this dose was selected for present study.
Cadmium chloride monohydrate as CdCl2.H2O, MW 201.32, and purity 99% of Sarabhai India was used. Salt was dissolved in tap water to prepare solutions of different concentrations ranging from M -1 to M -5 . Experimental design was planned as per internationally accepted protocol (13) which consisted of the following steps.
(i) The pink brown dry outer scales and some of the brownish bottom plate of each bulb were removed carefully leaving root primordial intact.
(ii) For each concentration of test compound i.e. CdCl2, a series of 12 test tubes were arranged in a test tube rack. Five series of the test tubes were filled with the different molar concentrations (M -1 to M -5 ) of solutions of CdCl2 in tap water (Gr II). Twelve tubes were filled with only pure tap water and maintained to provide control (Gr I). 60 tubes were filled with five concentration of cadmium chloride solution as in Gr II but having myrobalan in it at 0.10 mg/ml concentration (Gr III).
(iii) Each descaled onion was placed on the top of each tube with root primordial downward in the liquid.
(iv) After 24 hours test suspension in (Gr III) and test solutions in (Gr II) and tap water in (Gr I) were changed. Change of liquid was repeated after 48 hours.
(v) After 48 hours two onions out of twelve in each series with most poorly growing roots were removed. Same day i.e. after 48 hours distal 2 mm of five roots was cut off from five individual bulbs and fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 v/v) for chromosomal study. Every time fixation was done at a fix time 11.00 O'clock.
(vi) After 72 hours length of the 05 root bundles in each series of each onion was measured using a ruler. Mean length of roots for each series was calculated and recorded for further statistical analysis.
(vii) Morphology (shape and colour) of root tips were also recorded after 72 hours.
Squashing of Root Tips
Root tips were squashed in 2% acetocarmine (BDH) + N HCl (9:1 v/v) after gently warming.
Four fields from each slide were observed to cover about 50 cells i.e. total 200 cells per slide. Total 2000-2500 cells were observed for each group of onions (10-15 slides). Mitotic Index (MI) was calculated percentage of cells in division
MI = ( ( No. of cells showing mitosis ) / (Total No. of cells observed ) ) * 100
Slides were also observed to find out mitotic arrest, chromosome fragmentation, lagging, abnormal orientation, stickiness, polyploidy etc.
Experiments were done thrice. Student's t-test was applied at 5% level of significance to find out significant difference between Gr I and Gr II or Gr I and Gr III or Gr II and Gr III.
1. Mean Root Length (MRL, Table - 1)
All test concentrations of cadmium chloride (except at 10 -1 M and 10 -2 M where roots did not grew at all) caused significant inhibition in the growth of roots (Gr. II) in comparison to controls (Gr. I). A comparison between Gr. II and Gr. III (CdCl2 + myrobalan) revealed that myrobalan could partially check cadmium induced root growth inhibition at 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M as mean values could not reach up to controls MRL value.
2. Mitotic Index (MI, Table - 2)
MI was found significantly lower than controls (Gr. I) at 10 -3 M, 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M cadmium exposure (Gr. II). Drug could not antagonize effect of cadmium at 10 -3 M but significantly higher MI could be recorded at 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M of cadmium chloride having drug Gr. III but still mean values did not reach up to controls mean values. This indicates that drug could partially prevent Cd-induced mitodepression at 10 -4 M and 10 -5 M.
3. Morphology: colour and shape of root tips (Table - 3)
Morphology i.e. colour and shape of
4. Abnormal Mitosis (Table - 4)
In controls no abnormal mitosis or chromosomal aberrations could be observed however, cultivation of
Earlier studies have shown that cadmium-induced C-mitosis, chromosome stickiness, chromosome lagging, low mitotic index and multipolar anaphases in
In rat hepatocytes cadmium chloride lowered cell population at GO/GI and G2/M stages (17). A dose dependent reduction of cell proliferation could be noticed in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells following cadmium exposures (15). The cells were blocked at G2/M and G1/S phases and authors were of opinion that cadmium toxicity was not cell phase specific. During late G1 restriction point gate opens in the presence of a complex molecule at promoters of essential cell cycle genes and unreplicated and/or damaged DNA does not allow cells to go beyond G1 state (18). Cadmium affects both, gene transcription and translation and modulates signal transduction pathway (4).All such known toxic effects of cadmium chloride can be held responsible for causing low mitosis i.e. mitodepression in
Unreplicated DNA does not allow cells to go beyond G1 stage and Cd damages DNA. It is likely that Cd-induced DNA damage in
Individual plant components like sulfhydryl and flavonoid compounds, gallic acid, ellagic acid, mucic acid, citric acid, reducing sugars and tannins can modulate effect of many genotoxicant (25). Myrobalan possesses many of such compounds (26) especially flavonoids which are ideal antioxidants (27) hence can be held responsible for reducing Cd-genotoxicity in
Authors thank Dr. G. Fiskesjo, Institute of Genetics, and University of Lund, Sweden for providing literature.