Prevalence Of Intestinal Parasites Among The Local People In Lum Pra Due Village, Nakornratchasrima, Thailand Without Previous History Of Antihelminthic Drug Distribution
J Suwansaksri, V Wiwanitkit, S Nithiuthai
intestinal parasite, opisthorchis viverrini, thailand, trematode
J Suwansaksri, V Wiwanitkit, S Nithiuthai. Prevalence Of Intestinal Parasites Among The Local People In Lum Pra Due Village, Nakornratchasrima, Thailand Without Previous History Of Antihelminthic Drug Distribution. The Internet Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2004 Volume 2 Number 1.
A survey of prevalence of intestinal parasites among the local population of Lum Pra Due village in the Nakorn Ratchasrima province was performed during the year of 2000. The setting is a community in the endemic area of trematode infection without the recent previous history of antihelminthic drug distribution. Stool examination from 153 villagers (63 males and 90 females) was performed. The infection rate was 68 % (104 cases). The rate of infection in male (72 %) was higher than in female (62 %). Most of the infected cases (88 %) were in the age group 41 - 60 years. Single Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found in 7 cases. Combined infection of Opisthorchis viverrini with other non-fluke intestinal parasite was found in 44 cases. Combined infection of minute intestinal fluke with other non-fluke intestinal parasite was found in 85 cases. There were also 5 infected cases, but without fluke, with non-fluke parasite. Therefore, trematode infection is still a major health problem for this community.
People in rural areas of Thailand have difficulty accessing good health care and basic health education. Subsequently, some preventable diseases such as parasitic infections are still prevalent in many remote areas of Thailand 1,2,3,4. Among pathogenic parasitic infections in northeastern region of Thailand, liver flue infection is disease with the highest prevalence. The Ministry of Public Health has set a number of control programs since 1984. However, the coverage of these programs to the far rural area is limited.
Here, we report a survey of prevalence of intestinal parasites among the local population of Lum Pra Due village in the Nakorn Ratchasrima province. The setting is a community in the endemic area of trematode infection without the recent previous history of antihelminthic drug distribution. Stool examinations were performed as indicators of the basic health status of the people in this rural area.
Materials And Methods
Study area and participants
All 153 villagers living in Lum Pra Due village, Huay Thalaeng District, Nakorn Ratchasrima province, were recruited into the study. The study area is the endemic area of parasitic diseases, especially the fluke diseases. Its location is about 300 km from Bangkok, capital of Thailand. This survey was performed during May 2000. In cooperation with local health workers, we dealt directly with the community leaders who assisted us in maximizing community participation and compliance. The people in this area were willing to participate in the study. Verbal informed consent was obtained from each individual before the study.
Stool specimens were obtained from all participants and examined for the presence of intestinal parasite eggs or larvae as previously described (Triteeraprapab
The rest of samples were fixed in formalin before further processed by using a formalin-ether concentration technique, and then examined under microscope at the Veterinarian Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinarian Science, Chulalongkorn University for confirmed of diagnosis.
All data were statistically analysed by the Microsoft Excel 6.0 programs.
Characteristics of study population
Cartons were provided to 153 individuals residing in Lum Pra Due village, Huay Thalaeng District, Nakorn Ratchasrima Province, at the time of our visit. All individuals returned their stool samples the next day. Of the 153 individuals examined for intestinal parasites, 63 were males and 90 were females. The demographic data of all subjects were presented in Table 1.
Parasitism in the studied population
Intestinal parasites were recovered in 104 individuals (Table 1,2), giving the infection rate was 68 %. The rate of infection in male (72 %) was higher than in female (62 %). Most of the infected cases (88 %) were in the age group 41 - 60 years. Single
Parasitic infections affect people in most developing countries worldwide.
For Thailand, parasitic helminths affect more than 35 % of the population1 . The prevalence rates of intestinal parasitic infections vary from one area to another depending on the degree of personal and community hygiene, and other sanitation and climatic factors 5
In order to access the parasitic infection status of a population in a village in the endemic area of parasitic disease, in Northeastern of Thailand, without previous history of drug distribution due to the fluke control program, we performed stool examinations. We found that upto 68 % of the studied population harbored parasites. This number was 2 times higher than the national average (35 %) according to the national epidemiological survey of 19961. Concerning to our study, the infection rates of minute intestinal fluke (55.6 %) and
Furthermore, in comparison to the previous reports from the remote areas, also without control program for intestinal parasites, of Tak and Khon Kaen Provinces2,3 have 46 % and 34 % of their populations carrying at least one parasite, respectively. Obviously, the health intervention program for intestinal parasitic infection control in the remote area is necessary.
Concerning the relation of age group and parasitic infection, our study revealed the high infection rate in age group 41 - 60 years. This result confirmed previous studies, which mentioned the high infection in adult and lower rate in children 7,8. Our result showed slightly higher infection among female. However, the sex predominant for parasite infection is still not confirmed. Some reported higher rate in male9 , the others reported similar rate in both sexes 7,8 . The infection may relate to the daily activity of the surveyed subjects than sex.
Parasitic diseases are still diseases of the poor though the diagnosis and treatment for most of them are not difficult. The common consequences of parasitic infections have been shown to affect nutritional status, physical development, mental function, verbal ability and inhibition-control aspects of cognitive behavior in children10,11,12,13 (Tripathy
We are thankful to all of the villagers who participated into this study. Also, we have to thank for all parasitologists at the Veterinarian Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinarian Science, Chulalongkorn University who help examine all stool samples.
Department of Clinical Chemistry,
Faculty of Allied Health Science,
Bangkok, Thailand 10330