M Ashoka Shenoy, C Shastry
diuretic activity, electrolyte excretion, hypertension, spiranolactone
M Ashoka Shenoy, C Shastry. Evaluation of Diur-08 A Polyherbal Formulation for Diuretic Activity. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2008 Volume 7 Number 1.
In the present study diuretic activity of Diur-08, a polyherbal formulation was studied. The animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. All the animals received priming dose of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/Kg body weight.). The first group served as control and the second group received the standard drug Spiranolactone (20 mg/Kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. The other group received Diur-08 at a dose of 150mg/Kg body weight suspended in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (post oral.).Urine volume was measured for all the groups for 5h. Urinary levels of sodium, potassium and chloride were estimated. Both spironolactone and formulation Diur-08 treated animals shown significant diuretic activity compared to control animals. Also there is significant increase in Na+ and Cl- excretion in treated animals when compared to control animals. We observed a potent diuretic and electrolyte excretion activity of Diur-08 formulation.
Diuretics are drugs that increase the rate of urine flow, sodium excretion and are used to adjust the volume and composition of body fluids in a variety of clinical situations. Drug-induced diuresis is beneficial in many life-threatening disease conditions such as congestive heart failure, nephritic syndrome, cirrhosis, renal failure, hypertension, and pregnancy toxaemia.  Most diuretic drugs have the adverse effect on quality of life including impotence, fatigue, and weakness. Naturally occurring diuretics include caffeine in coffee, tea, and cola, which inhibit Na + reabsorption and alcohol in beer, wine inhibit secretion of ADH. ,  Although most of the diuretics proved to be very effective in promoting sodium excretion, all cause potassium loss and prompted the search for potassium sparing diuretic. Hence search for a new diuretic agent that retains therapeutic efficacy and yet devoid of potassium loss is justified. 
Many indigenous drugs have been claimed to have diuretic effect in Ayurvedic system.
Among the several plants,
Materials and Methods
Albino Wistar rats weighing 175-200 g are procured from Indian Institute of Sciences. They are maintained under standard conditions (temperature 22 ± 2 oC, relative humidity 60 ± 5% and 12 h light/dark cycle).The animals were housed in sanitized polypropylene cages containing sterile paDiur-08y husk as beDiur-08ing. They had free access to standard pellet diet and water
Drugs and Chemicals
All the drugs, chemicals, and reagents were procured from S.D. Fine Chemicals, (Mumbai, India). All the chemicals were of analytical grade.
The method described by Lipschtiz et al  and Kavimani et al  was employed for the assessment of diuretic activity. The animals were divided into three groups of six animals each and they were fasted and deprived of food and water for 18 h prior to experiment. All the animals received priming dose of 0.9% sodium chloride solution (25 ml/Kg body weight.). The first group received vehicle (saline) served as control and the second group served as the standard group, received the drug Spiranolactone (20 mg/Kg body weight,
All values are expressed as mean ± SEM. The values obtained for the above parameters were compared between control group and treated groups of animals by One-Way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's test. The values of
Significant diuretic activity was observed in both formulation treated and Spiranolactone treated animals when compared to control animals. There was significant increase in both volume of urine and sodium ions excretion (
Both standard drug Spiranolactone and formulation decreased the excretion of potassium, but it is significant only in Spiranolactone treated animals (
For excretion of Cl -, significant increase was observed both in Spiranolactone and formulation treated animals (
The present result shows significant diuretic potency and their effect on electrolyte excretion of polyherbal formulation Diur-08 which is comparable to the standard drug Spiranolactone.
A complex set of interrelationships exists among the cardiovascular system, the kidneys, the central nervous system (Na +, appetite, thirst regulation) and the tissue capillary beds (distribution of extra cellular fluid volume), so that perturbation at one of these sites can affect all the remaining sites. A primary law of the kidneys is that Na + excretion is a steep function of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) such that small increase in MABP cause marked increase in Na + excretion. 
One of the earliest strategies for the management of hypertension was to alter Na + balance by restriction of salt in the diet. Diuretics relieve pulmonary congestion and peripheral edema. These agents are useful in reducing the syndrome of volume overload, including orthopnea and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea. They decrease plasma volume and subsequently venous return to the heart (preload). This decreases cardiac workload, oxygen demand and plasma volume, thus decreasing blood pressure. Thus, diuretics play an important role in hypertensive patients.
The results of the present study revealed that the polyherbal formulation Diur-08 posses a potent diuretic activity. The diuretic potency was comparable to that of the standard drug Spiranolactone. Similar to the standard drug Spiranolactone, the polyherbal formulation Diur-08 increases the Na + excretion but decreases K + excretion and hence acts as a potassium sparing diuretic. The natural products of polyherbal formulation might be acting individually or synergistically to produce diuresis.
In conclusion, our results demonstrate polyherbal formulation Diur-08 has significant effects on urinary excretion of electrolytes and support the claims of diuretic efficacy. The potency of individual ingredients of the polyherbal formulation has to be assessed separately for their diuretic property. Also this study will provide basis for the traditional use of this formulation in hypertension.
Authors are greatful to the authorities of A. Shama Rao Foundation for providing the polyherbal formulation and financial assistance to carry out the research work.