Effects Of Coenzyme Q10 On Lipid Levels And Antioxidant Defenses In Rats With Fructose Induced Hyperlipidemia And Hyperinsulinaemia
K Modi, S Vishwakarma, R Goyal, P Bhatt
antioxidant activity, coenzymeq10, fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia, lipid levels
K Modi, S Vishwakarma, R Goyal, P Bhatt. Effects Of Coenzyme Q10 On Lipid Levels And Antioxidant Defenses In Rats With Fructose Induced Hyperlipidemia And Hyperinsulinaemia. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2006 Volume 5 Number 1.
Many clinical studies suggest that type-II diabetic patients are subjected to chronic oxidative stress. Using rats with fructose induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlipidemia, we investigated whether treatment with CoenzymeQ10, a component of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation improved carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities. Treatment with CoenzymeQ10 (10mg/kg,
Type-II Diabetes Mellitus is associated with abnormalities in carbohydrates and lipid metabolism that results in excessive production of reactive oxygen species [ROS] and oxidative stress1,2,3,4,5,6. Elevated glucose causes oxidative stress as a result of increased production of mitochondrial ROS formed through auto-oxidation, oxidative phosphorylation, glycosylation and glycosamine pathways7,8,9,10,11. Elevated free fatty acids can cause oxidative stress because of increased mitochondrial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation leading to an increase in the production of ROS12. These molecules can function as signals to activate a number of cellular stress sensitive pathways like Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptors for AGE (RAGE), Protein kinase C (PKC), Polyol pathways, Nuclear Factor κB (NFκB), NH2-terminal Jun kinases/Stress Activated Protein Kinases (JNK/ SAPK), p38 Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinase and hexosamine pathways13,14,15,16,17,18. Activation of these pathways is not only linked to the development of late complications of diabetes13,19,20 but also to insulin resistance, β-cell and endothelial dysfunctions21,22,23.
If oxidative stress is the pathogenic mechanism leading from insulin resistance to overt diabetes, the ability of an agent to prevent or reverse oxidant stress can account for its clinical usefulness24,25. Conventional antioxidants scavenge ROS in a stoichiometric manner26. However, interrupting the overproduction of oxidants by the mitochondrial electron transport chain would normalize the pathways involved in the development of oxidative stress24. CoenzymeQ10 (CoQ10), also known as ubiquinone, is an endogenously synthesized antioxidant. It is a component of the oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria, which converts the energy in carbohydrates and fatty acids into ATP to drive cellular machinery 25. In diabetes, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is significantly reduced; thus ATP production is reduced along with decreased level of CoQ1027. In addition to assisting electron transfer during oxidative phosphorylation, CoQ10 inhibits certain enzymes involved in the formation of free radicals and thus attenuates oxidative stress28.
Fructose feeding provides a model of hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance through the elevated synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acid and triglyceride in the liver29,30,31. The present study was conducted to observe whether CoQ10 improved carbohydrate and lipid abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in fructose-fed rats.
Materials And Methods
Male Sprague Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g, (Zydus Research Center, Ahmedabad, India) housed under well controlled conditions of temperature (22±2°C), humidity (55±5%) and 12/12-h light dark cycle were given access to food and water
Animals were divided into 3 groups (n=6) and treated for three weeks: (1) Normal control (normal diet and water ad
The serum parameters were analyzed spectrophotometrically by using double beam UV-Visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV- UV-Visible spectrophotometer, model 1601). Estimation of serum glucose (GOD-POD method), cholesterol (enzymatic method), triglyceride (enzymatic method) and HDL-cholesterol (phosphotungstate method) were carried out using respective diagnostic kits (Bayer Diagnostic Ltd. India). Serum insulin was estimated by a radioimmunoassay method from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India. VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were calculated as per Friedewald's equation33.
VLDL = Total serum triglycerides/5 LDL= Total serum Cholesterol - Total serum triglycerides/5-Total serum HDL-C HDL ratio = HDL–Cholesterol X 100 /Total serum Cholesterol - HDL-C Atherogenic Index34 = Total serum triglycerides/Total serum HDL-C
Estimation of antioxidants
After 3 weeks, animals were sacrificed, the liver was quickly removed and washed in ice-cold saline. One hundred milligrams of liver tissue was homogenized in ice-cold tri hydrochloride buffer (pH 7.2). The homogenate was centrifuged at 800 g for 10 min, followed by centrifugation of the supernatant at 12,000g for 15 min. The supernatant obtained was used for the estimation of reactive oxygen metabolites in terms of lipid peroxidation35, superoxide dismutase (SOD)36, catalase37, reduced glutathione (GSH)38, and total protein estimation39.
Results were analyzed statistically using one way analysis of variance- (ANOVA) followed Tukey's test. Data were considered statistically significant at p<0.05.
Effects on body weight, glucose, insulin and lipid Profile
Fructose fed rats exhibited significant increase in body weight as compared to normal control rats (P<0.05). Treatment with CoQ10 in fructose fed rats reversed this increase in body weight (P<0.05). Fructose fed rats were hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic as compared to normal control animals (P<0.05). Treatment with Coenzyme Q10 in fructose fed rats reduced glucose level without affecting insulin levels (p<0.05). (Table 1). Fructose fed animals exhibited significantly higher serum cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels whereas there was a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and HDL ratio as compared to normal control animals. CoQ10 treatment in fructose fed rats produced a significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels, with an increase in HDL--cholesterol and HDL-ratio (Table 1). Furthermore, CoQ10 treatment to fructose fed rats exhibited significant improvement in atherogenic index (Table 1).
Effects on antioxidant defenses
Fructose fed animals showed significant increase in lipid peroxidation in terms of amount of malondialdehyde and super oxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue homogenates when compared to normal control animals. Treatment with CoQ10 in fructose fed rats significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increase SOD in liver tissue homogenates (P<0.05) (Table-2). Fructose fed rats showed significant decrease in catalase and glutathione levels in liver tissue homogenate as compared to normal control animals. Treatment with CoQ10 significantly increased catalase and glutathione levels in liver tissue homogenate (P< 0.05)(Table-2).
Evidence reviews that patients with type-II diabetes continually undergo oxidative stress, elevated glucose and free fatty acids increase levels of reactive oxidant species, islets have intrinsically low antioxidant enzyme defenses and antioxidant drugs and over expression of antioxidant enzyme rectify hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia40. The present study was conducted to determine whether improving antioxidant enzyme defenses by treatment with Coenzyme Q10 (10mg/kg,
The triglyceride lowering effect of CoQ10 is likely to be the result of its LDL specific antioxidant activity as well as increased cellular antioxidant status45. Lipid peroxidation and covalent modification of apolipoprotein B oxidize LDL by lipid hydroperoxide breakdown46. Oxidized LDL is cytotoxic to vascular cells47,48, thus promoting release of lipids and lysosomal enzymes into the intimal extra cellular space and enhancing the progression of atherosclerotic lesions49, 50.
FFA and glucose overload increases the generation of acetyl CoA which in turn increases the production of electron donors from the tricarboxylic acid cycle. This increases the membrane potential, because protons are pumped across the mitochondrial inner membrane in proportion to electron flux through the electron transport chain. Inhibition of electron transport at complex III by increased membrane potential increases the half-life of free radical intermediates of CoQ10 which reduces O2 to superoxide51. According to an intra peritoneal glucose tolerance test, treatment with antioxidants retained glucose stimulated insulin secretion and moderately decreased the blood glucose levels52. In the present study, CoQ10 treatment reduced the blood glucose levels in fructose fed animals without affecting hyperinsulinemia. Under diabetic condition, JNK is activated by oxidative stress and involved in the suppression of insulin gene expression52. The effect on hyperinsulinemia in the present study could have been better justified had the treatment been for a longer duration. The beneficial effects of antioxidant gene overexpression in protecting β-cell function in a ribose related model of type II diabetes was recently reported53.
Pro-oxidants and markers for oxidative tissue damage, such as 8-hydroxy-deoxy guanine, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) proteins, 8-epi-prostaglandinF2α, hydroperoxides and oxidation of DNA bases, have been reported to be elevated in serum, plasma, white blood cells and pancreas biopsies of patients with type-II diabetes2,46,51. Paolisso et al. reported that intravenous infusion of glutathione in type-II diabetic patients improved insulin secretion and glucose tolerance during oral glucose tolerance tests54. In the present study, CoQ10 treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and increased SOD, catalase and reduced glutathione levels in the liver tissue homogenate, which might be the result of a decrease in oxidative stress. In coronary artery disease patients, CoQ10 supplements was also associated with a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, malondialdehyde and diene conjugates55
In conclusion, CoQ10 a provitamin and a mitochondrial free radical scavenger was found to significantly improve deranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of experimental fructose diet induced insulin resistant state in rats. The mechanism of its in-vivo antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic action appears to be its mitochondrial antioxidant activity. This study emphasis the therapeutic potential of CoQ10 along with antidiabetics in the treatment of type II diabetes.
We thank Troikaa Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Zydus Research Center, Ahmedabad, India, for gifting sample of Coenzyme Q10 and animals for this research work.
Ramesh K. Goyal Department of Pharmacology, L. M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org