S Biradar, S Bahagvati, I Kuppast
S Biradar, S Bahagvati, I Kuppast. Osteoporosis: Formulation & Ingredient Challenges. The Internet Journal of Pharmacology. 2005 Volume 4 Number 2.
Formulators can help people to get the calcium they need by combining various calcium-rich, dairy-based ingredients into their products. A showcase on dairy-derived ingredients is included. Many types of dietary supplements have been advocated for the reduction of certain symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). However, only one supplement—calcium—has been demonstrated to be of significant benefit in a large, rigorous, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Limited evidence suggests that magnesium, vitamin E and carbohydrate supplements might also be useful, but additional research is needed to confirm these findings.
Osteoporosis causes brittle bones that are prone to fracturing and is often dubbed the "silent disease" as sufferers rarely experience any symptoms — although it can cause a hunched back and back pain in some cases — and only realise they have the condition when they suffer a fracture
Calcium regulating can help to save bones
Osteophase is the first nutritional supplement that reliably regulates calcium homeostasis to rebuild skeletal bone and resolve calcium overload. It's a marine-based formula made from oyster shell lining combined with 21 different amino acids, iron, zinc, and three specific herbs – astragalus, angelica sinensis root, and coix seeds.
The inner lining of the oyster shell contains biologically active proteins and enzymes that are responsible for stimulating the formation of the hard outer shell from available calcium. The manufacturers of Osteophase developed a method of extracting these bioactive ingredients from the shell lining, along with calcium from the actual shell.
When they're combined with the three herbs in the formula, the active components of the oyster shell lining help regulate the functions of calcium in the body, pulling it out of soft tissues where it can cause damage, and re-directing it into the bones to strengthen them2.
The level of intake is actually far below the 1,000mg of calcium supplementation recommended each day by health authorities to protect against bone loss. But despite the lower level of calcium, the researchers found that Osteophase reduced the loss of calcium by up to 69 per cent, increased bone density by 27 per cent, and increased bone remodelling by 100 per cent 3,4
A growing concern regarding bone health in people of all ages has prompted the food industry to respond by adding calcium to foods and beverages. Recently, mostly dairy products touted calcium fortification, followed by beverages and snacks. Specific products include calcium-fortified hot and cold cereals, rice, granola bars, spreadable margarines, and chews. Calcium-containing beverages include fortified milk products, hot and cold drink mixes, orange juice, carbonated soft drinks, beer and even water.
Calcium carbonate and calcium citrate are the main forms of calcium added to foods and beverages. Other forms of calcium added to products include calcium lactate, calcium chloride, calcium fumarate, calcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, calcium glycerophosphate, calcium gluconate, and calcium sulfate, and blends of these calcium forms.
Recently, researchers have been investigating a source of calcium called “milk calcium,” a concentrated source of calcium and other minerals derived from milk. Producing milk calcium, available as a fine powder in different granulations, involves extracting minerals directly from the whey stream. Besides calcium, it includes minerals important for bone growth such as phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, and zinc.
Human bone has a 2:1 ratio of calcium to phosphorus,” says Hollermann. “When people who especially need calcium, such as osteoporosis therapy patients and many of the elderly, are given a calcium supplement that does not contain phosphorus, they can end up with a phosphorus deficiency
All dairy-derived products contain calcium, except for butterfat. Generally, the higher the fat content, the lower the calcium content. Nonfat dry milk is probably the most popular way to fortify a product with calcium because it is the least expensive of the dairy-derived ingredients and there are fewer issues with off-flavors. Different ingredients have various amounts of calcium. As a reference, eight ounces of fluid milk contains about 300mg calcium (or 30% DV). Nonfat dry milk contains about 1300mg calcium per 100g of powder. It takes one-third cup of NFDM powder (280mg calcium) to make one cup of fluid milk. Dry sweet whey contains 770mg Ca/100g and dry acid whey contains 2280mg Ca/100g, according to figures from Dairy Management Inc., Rosemont, Ill. Cheese solids and powders also contain calcium. 5
While the other calcium sources must be listed as “calcium carbonate” or whatever the chemical composition, milk calcium can be listed by many names that are acceptable by the Food and Drug Administration. These include milk mineral complex, whey mineral complex, milk mineral or whey mineral concentrate, dairy calcium, milk calcium, or milk minerals. Nutrient content claims regarding calcium are allowed by the FDA as follows:
Foods containing 20% or more of the calcium DV can be listed as “High in Calcium,” “Rich in Calcium,” or an “Excellent Source of Calcium.”
A food containing 10% to 19% of the calcium DV can say, “Contains Calcium,” “Provides Calcium,” or is a “Good Source of Calcium.
Foods containing 10% or more of the calcium DV, when compared to a standard serving size of a similar food, can say they are “Calcium Enriched,” “Calcium-Fortified,” or have “More Calcium.”
The FDA permits health claims regarding the role of calcium in lowering the risk for osteoporosis. The health claim can be used on food and dietary supplement labels that are good sources of calcium 6 7