Effect of extracts of Zizphus spina-christi L and Olea europaea L. on the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus
N Alsudani. Effect of extracts of Zizphus spina-christi L and Olea europaea L. on the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus . The Internet Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2006 Volume 2 Number 1.
Extracts different parts of two medical plants
The protoscolices still live in control group in HCF+NS in ratio 4:1 over than 20 days (480) hrs.
Hydatidosis is a hydatid disease of human and domesticated animals caused by infection with the taeniidae metacestode (protoscolices) as a larval stage of
Epidemiological data on the distribution of hydration shows that its prevalence remained at nearly the same level during the last several decades. Moreover, the appearance of the disease within recent years in communities previously free of it, has produced an entirely new global situation. (Satoh , etal.,2005)
Hydatid disease proceeds silently and the symptoms are manifested several years after infection. The severity of symptoms depends mainly on the organ affected the results being due mainly to pressure affects. The organ frequently affected by hydatidosis is the right lobe of the liver, but lungs, kidneys, bones and brain may also be affected (Marchiondo, et al. , 1994 and Zhang ,etal.,2003)
No effective chemotherapy is currently available for the medical treatment of cystic and alveolar hydrated disease in humans. Within recent years several drugs, notably mebendazole, albendazole, praziquantel, mitomycinic, isoprinosine and other on the elminthic drugs have shown promising results in the reduction and induction of ultrastrcuctural damage of the larval cystic mass (Sarciron, et al., 1992 and Satoh , etal.,2005).
However, the treatment of echinococcosis with these compounds has also shown only acytostatic effects as evidenced by the survival and resumption of cystic growth in treated hosts following cessation of drug treatment or after transplantation of cystic material from drug treated hosts into rodent hosts (Novak, 1990).
Limited inconsistent effects of the above, mentioned drags appear to be related directly to the age of infection, dosage of drug, route of administration, and treatment regimens (Andersen, 1995).
The use of antimicrobial active components that were isolated from higher plants has been limited to antiseptics and disinfectants and these had little applications of such ingredients yet reported in systematic therapy (Orjala et al. , 1998, Lim, et al. 1998 and Walker etal., 2004).
As the Iraqi flora is rich in plants the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents still widely ahead, so, the aims of this study was to study aqueous extracts of zizyphus spina- Christi l. (leaves, fruits and tree wood) and
Material and Methods
Sampling and Extraction
Common name (Christs thorn) Arabic name: Seddar, Nabuq
Studied parts: fruits, leaves and tree woods (Christ).
2: Olea europaea L. (Family: Oleaceae)
Common name (Olive) Arabic name: Zayton
Studied parts: fruits and leaves.
These plants were collected from gardens in the Basrah district. Each dried plant parts were grounded to gm of powder and then mixed with 100 ml distilled water. The mixture is to be mixed by magnetic stirrer for 72 hrs in discontinuous period times – at room temperature and heated for 12 hrs at 50-55 Co with stirring. The mixture was put in centrifuge 3000 xg for 1 hr, then made narrow concentrations from crude supernatant extracts (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 , and 1000 mcg/ml) in order to study the influence of these concentrations on viability of protoscolices (Al-Saimary & Benyan, 1997).
Protoscolices were collected from hydrated cysts of sheep. The suspension containing the free protoscolices were preserved in preservative solution
Hydrated cyst fluid (HCF) + Normal Saline (N.S.) in ratio
4 : 1
Percentages of protoscolices viability or survival were determined by examining them by compound microscope for permeability of aqueous eosin stain (0.5%) as a vital stain of protoscolices-, Green protoscolices: Viabel, Red protoscolices: Deal. (Smyth and Barrett, 1980).
The protoscolices viability for each of treating and control groups were examined in serial period times until dead all of protoscolices.
The percentage of protoscolices viability decreased from 98% to 4% in over than 20 days after being preserved in HCF+NS 4:1 without treatment.Fig-1-.
In general the concentration 1000 mcg/ml showed great effects on protoscolies viability in all of studies plant extracts, while 50 mcg/ml had the lowest effects. The results of effects of plant extracts were arranged according to a great activity.
Leaves extract of
While other antibiotic were deceased the protoscolices viability to zero% as follows
In (72, 96, 120, 168) after treated with (1000, 500 % 750, 250, 100 & 50) mcg/ml of leaves extract of
In (96, 120, 168 and 240) hrs after treated with (1000 & 750 & 500, 250, 100 and 50) mcg/ml of fruits extracted of
In (96, 120, 144, 168, 240) hrs after treated with (1000, 500, 520, 100 and 50) mcg/ml of fruits extracts of
And finally in (120, 144, 168 and 240) hrs after treated with (1000 & 750, 500, 100 & 50) mcg/ml of Tree wood (christ) extracts of
In this investigation we studied the efficiency of different parts of two plants
In accidentally infected human, surgical intervention for removal of hydatid cysts is performed but this surgery is not without risks, and in many countries of the world, the mortality rate rages between 1-4% and many reach 20% or more in cases of repeat surgery (Walker etal., 2004 and Mathis , etal., 2005).
Some anthelminthic drugs cause glycogen depletion of the parasite and destroy the microtriches of the germinal layer of hydatid cyst. The main function of the microtriches implanted in the laminated layer, is assimilation of nutrients and physiological homeostasis.(Satoh , etal.,2005).
In this study, our results indicated and evidenced the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants. Leaves of
These parameters found necessary to give the light spot on the action of these plants and open a wide space for more of future studies to find a typical chemotherapeutic agents against many of microbial diseases-In general –or against hydatidosis- in especially.
Our results confirmed the results of previous studies who carried out other anthelminthic drugs that cause a vacuolization and rupture of the germinal membrane along with swelling and rounding of mitochondria that appears to be non specific degeneration effects that have been previously reported following treatment (Richards, et al., 1989, Sareiron, et al., 1992, Marchiondo, et al., 1994 and Zhang ,etal.,2003).
We thinks that the extracts of the medicinal plants decreased the protoscolices viability due to the important role of these extracts in the break down of the biological activities of protoscolices by interference with its metabolism, and may be have target sites such as inhibitors of protein and DNA synthesis or within the cytoplasmic components such as -lactam antibiotics. (Chopra and Hacker, 1992, Oliva, et al., 1992, Bennett Chopra, 1993 and Walker etal., 2004).
Conclusion & Recommendation
Six concentrations of aqueous extracts of various parts two medicinal plant sZizyphus spina-Christi & Olea earopaea were used in this study and found that the 1000 mcg/ml has greatest activity while 50 mcg/ml has a lowest activity.
Each of tow above plants affected on the protoscolices viability.
In control group, HCF+NS in ration 4:1 keep the protoscolices viable to over than 20 days (480) hrs.
We recommend a continuous work about extracted pure compound from these two plants to find another antimicrobial agents against parasites and / or bacteria that not affected by treated with a common therapeutic agents.