Microbiological and nutritional quality of retail and laboratory “Ikpan” (mushroom -melon cake); a local snack
B Adebayo-Tayo, E Friday, B Adebayo-Tayo
B Adebayo-Tayo, E Friday, B Adebayo-Tayo. Microbiological and nutritional quality of retail and laboratory “Ikpan” (mushroom -melon cake); a local snack. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2008 Volume 8 Number 2.
Microbiological and nutritional quality of “Ikpan” (mushroom-melon cake), a traditional snack locally made from fermented sclerotium of
“Ikpan” (mushroom-melon cake) is a traditional snack locally made from fermented sclerotium of
This study was carried out to determine the miocrobial and nutritional quality of retailed and laboratory prepared snacks from mushroom and melon seeds.
Materials and Methods
Collection of “Ikpan” samples
The Ikpan samples were purchase from four different locations in Akwa Ibom state. The samples were collected using a sterile container and then transported to the laboratory for analysis.
Laboratory Production of “Ikpan”
Egusi melon seeds used for this study were obtained from a local market in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and were identified as
Five hundred grams of “Isuo” (dried sclerotium of
Microbiological and physicochemical analyses
One gram of retail”Ikpan” samplewas weighed into 90ml sterile 0.1% peptone water as described in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA, 1991). Ten fold dilutions of each of the samples were made and 0.1ml of the diluents were pour plated in triplicate plates on Nutrient agar for total bacteria counts, MacConkey agar (oxoid) for coliform count,
Colonies were selected randomly, bacteria cultures were characterized and identified using various morphological and biological test such as gram stain, spore stain, motility, catalase, coagulase, indole, MR –VP, urease, citrate, Oxidase and sugar fermentation. Pure cultures of each isolate were obtained by streaking the specific colonies on suitable media and incubated appropriately; these were maintained in an agar slant in McCartney bottles.
The identification of the microbial isolates was based on classification Scheme proposed by Harrigan and McCance (1976), Buchanan and Gibbson (1974) and Collin and Lyne (1984). The identification was based essentially on morphological and biochemical reactions. The associated fungi were then identified with reference to Frazier and Westholf (1998).
The proximate analysis of the samples for moisture, total ash and crude fibre were carried out in triplicate using methods described (AOAC, 1990). The nitrogen was determined by micro Kjeldahl method described by Pearson (1976) and the nitrogen content was converted to protein by multiplying by a factor of 6.25. Determination of crude fat/lipid content of the samples was done using Soxhlet (Cehmglass) type of the direct solvent extraction using petroleum ether (boiling range 60-80 ° C) as solvent. At the end of the extraction, the solvent was evaporated and the flask dried in the oven (at 60 ° C). Total carbohydrate content was estimated by ‘difference'. All the proximate values were reported in percentage (%).
Sensory Evaluation of the “Ikpan” Sample
Coded samples of “Ikpan” were served to 10 semi trained panelists. The panelists were asked to rate the samples for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The ratings were presented on a 9-point Hedonic scale ranging from 9 = “like extremely” to 1 = “dislike extremely”. Result obtained was subjected to analysis of variance using one – way ANOVA. Differences between means were separated using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (Steel and Torrie, 1980, Duncan, 1955).
Results and Discussion
The microbial counts of retailed and laboratory “Ikpan” samples are shown in Table 1.
The result showed that virtually all the retailed and laboratory “Ikpan” samples did not contain vibrio and coliform. The total bacteria count ranged from 1.0 - 6.2 x102 cfu/g in which the lowest count was obtained from samples prepared in the laboratory and samples from Ikot Ekpene market had the highest. The Staphylococci count ranged from 4.8 -5.0x102cfu/g in which samples from Itam had the highest while there was no observable growth in laboratory samples. Salmonella/Shigella count ranged from 2.6 – 3.2 x 101 cfu/g in which the highest was obtained from Ikot Ekpene samples. The fungal count ranged from 1.6 x 102 – 2.1 x 102 cfu/g.
The microorganism associated with “Ikpan” samples from different location is shown in Table 2.
A- Ikot Ekpene sample, B- Itam sample, C- Uyo sample and D- Laboratory sample,
The associated bacterial
The frequency of occurrence of bacteria and fungi isolates is shown in figure 1 and 2.
Generally “Ikpan” are displayed in wired basket for prospective consumers and in the process exposed to microbial contamination. Most of the organisms isolated have health implications for man except
The occurrences of
The fungi found associated with “Ikpan” mainly species of
From the result of this study, it has been made clear that most of the toxigenic fungi isolated from the Ikpan samples may be as a result of contamination of the melon and dried sclerotium and from improper handling during processing.
The proximate composition of “Ikpan were showed in Table 3.
The crude protein ranged from 20.94 – 24.28% in which samples from Ikot Ekpene had the highest while laboratory samples had the least protein. It was observed from these results that the protein value compares favourably with those of protein rich foods such as soybean, cowpeas, pigeon peas and pumpkin with protein contents ranging between 23.1 and 33.0% (Olaofe
Seeds have nutritive and calorific values, which make them necessary in diets. Research attention that are geared towards increasing utilization of plant protein sources for food use includes pumpkin (Olaofe
The crude fat ranged from 3.89- 4.56%. The crude fat content obtained in this study is lower than that obtained from melon reported by other workers (Ige
The crude fibre ranged from 0.73-1.33%. The crude fibre content of Ikpan obtained in this study is low compared to those of melon (12.0%) (Ojieh
As observed from our result, Ikpan is high in carbohydrate (62.45 – 68.56%) compared to other legumes which have as high as 20.0-60.0% carbohydrate content (Arkroyed and Doughty, 1964) and in contrast to egusi melon which is low in carbohydrate (10.6%)( )
The ash content of Ikpan samples ranged from 6.34 – 7.47% which is higher than the one reported by Ojieh
Table 4 shows the sensory attribute of the samples. Statistical analysis of sensory evaluation results showed a preference for the laboratory samples in terms of appearance, texture, flavour and palatability while retailed samples from Ikot Ekpene, and Uyo matched each other in terms of taste. Uyo match Itam samples only in texture.
A- Ikot Ekpene sample, B- Itam sample, C- Uyo sample and D- Laboratory sample,
Conclusively, the present study revealed that retailed Ikpan from different location in Akwa Ibom though nutritionally rich contain some microorganisms which may be hazardous to the consumers, prolong intake of which can constitute a health risk and significantly reduce net population growth rate. The study on the whole evidenced the microbial, nutritional and sensory status of Ikpan from Akwa Ibom state, However it did bring out the probable hazard associated with the consumption of contaminated Ikpan and equally revelealed that Ikpan is an excellent dietary snack which is very rich in required nutrient for human growth and development. It is recommended that Government should organize seminar for the producers, retailers and consumers and enlighting or educate them on the need to improve their personnal hygiene and proper preservation and handling after processing and how to display their food after processing by using glass showcase instead of metal basket. The consumers should be enlighting not buy or eat cake that are displayed inside a metal basket or has been exposed for too long.
It can thus be concluded that nutritionally rich diet could be prepared from combination of melon and sclerotium of