Is Fermented Pentactethra Macrophylla Nutritional Or Antinutritional?: Response From Haematological Studies In Protein Malnourished Guinea Pigs
H Nwanjo, I Iroagba, I Nnatuanya, N Eze
H Nwanjo, I Iroagba, I Nnatuanya, N Eze. Is Fermented Pentactethra Macrophylla Nutritional Or Antinutritional?: Response From Haematological Studies In Protein Malnourished Guinea Pigs. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2006 Volume 4 Number 2.
The fermented powered seeds of
For normal functioning, the human body requires sufficient amount of protein. Unfortunately protein foods are in short supply and therefore not within the reach of low-income households in Nigeria. This insufficient intake of protein can result to anaemia, which will also reflect on the haematological parameters. So diet plays a very important role in the prevention of anaemia.
The African Oil bean tree (
Despite these varied uses of the plant, there has been insufficient information on its exact haematological potentials on the animal system. An indication of possible anti-anaemic potentials of
Materials And Methods
Chemical and plant Materials
All chemicals used in this study were of analytical grades purchased from British Drug House (Pools, U.K). Seeds of
Animals and Treatment
Twenty-four male guinea pigs weighing 0.5-1.0 kg were obtained from a private farm in Owerri. The animals were fed
Animals in group A were placed on the normal diet with 21% protein throughout the period of the experiment i.e. eight weeks (negative control). Animals in group B were placed on the protein deficient diet with 2% protein throughout the period of the experiment and served as the positive control. Group C animal were placed on the protein deficient diet containing 2% protein for 4 weeks and subsequently with normal diet (as for group A) for another 4 weeks. Guinea pigs in Group D were placed on the protein deficient diet containing 2% protein for 4 weeks and subsequently with the protein deficient diet supplement with the
At the end of the treatment i.e. 8 weeks, the animals were fasted for 24hrs, re-weighed and then sacrificed by cervical dislocation. With a sterile syringe and needle blood was collected from each animal by cardiac puncture. A Blood sample for each animal was collected in EDTA anticoagulated bottle for haematological analysis.
Haemoglobin (Hb) level was estimated by the method of Drabkin and Austin (1932). Packed cell volume (PCV) level was determined by the Micro Heamatocrit method. RBC and WBC count was determined by the method of Hoffbrand and Pettit, (2000).
*Significant reduced when compared with (group A) at P< 0.05
** Significant reduced when compared with (group A, and C) at P< 0.05
*** Significant reduced when compared with (group A, C and D and) at P< 0.05
A Negative control, animals fed with normal Commercial chow
B Positive control, animals fed with protein deficient diet.
C Animals fed with protein deficient diet for 4 weeks and subsequently with standard diet for 4 weeks.
D Animals fed with protein deficient diet for 4 weeks and subsequently with protein deficient diet supplemented with fermented
The onset of kwashiokorigenic anaemic as observed in the present study was characterized by (a) Reduced body weight (b) Failure to thrive (c) Anorexia (d) Flecking off of hair (e) Reduced Hb, RBC and WBC. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the weight change of group B when compared to Group A, this could be attributed to the malnourished state of the animal which conform to earlier studies (Adelusi and Olowookere, 1985). However the observed significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weight change of group D animals when compared to Group C, not withstanding the presence of protein in the
There were reduced Hb, PCV, and WBC of group B animals due to the poor nutritional state of the animals. This is in confirmation with earlier work of Umoh and Maduagu (1986), which also showed that these haematological parameters were decreased in rats place on a protein energy malnourished (PEM) diets, which indicated the onset of the kwashiokorigenic syndrome. On the other hand the observed increase in these haematological parameters in group D when compared to group B may be attributed to the presence of some additional nutrients in the seed, which are necessary for erythropoieis and haeme synthesis, as earlier reports had shown that the seed contains high levels of iron, calcium, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin (Odoemelam, 2005: Achinewhu and Ryley, 1986). All of which may contribute to increases in haematological parameters. Furthermore, reduced oxygenation of tissues (hypoxia), which is usually associated with anaemic conditions, can easily trigger off the production of the circulating hormone erythropoietin. Erythropoietin production stimulate increased red blood cell production and the presence of high iron level and other required nutrients in the seed may further increase the red blood cell production perhaps or more times normal (Guyton, 1981). However in Group C, the haematological parameters were more increased than in group D, this strongly suggests that the oil bean contains anti-nutritional factors which did not allow for maximum protein utilization by the animals.
It may therefore be concluded from the evidence from this study that
Harrison Ugo Nwanjo, Ph.D, Department of Medical Lab. Science, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria. E-mail – firstname.lastname@example.org GSM-08033525389