Haematological Parameters Of Albino Rats Fed On Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculentus) Tuber Oil Meal-Based Diet.
E Bamishaiye, N Muhammad, O Bamishaiye
cholesterol, cyperus esculentus, haematological parameters, serum, soybean seed
E Bamishaiye, N Muhammad, O Bamishaiye. Haematological Parameters Of Albino Rats Fed On Tiger Nuts (Cyperus Esculentus) Tuber Oil Meal-Based Diet.. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 2009 Volume 10 Number 1.
The effect of
Haematological parameters are those parameters that are related to the blood and blood-forming organs1. The haematological and lipid serum examination is among the methods which may contribute to the detection of some changes in health status, which may not be apparent during physical examination but which affect the fitness of the animals 2.
Tiger nuts (
Materials and method
Collection and preparation of seed sample:
Dried tiger nut tubers used for this study was obtained from Hausa hawkers along Post Office in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria and were identified as
Purification of the extracted oil
The purification was done by employing the method of Folch
The purified tiger nut oil and soybean oil were used as a source of fat in the formulation of animal feed. The diet for each group was formulated by mixing known quantities of sources of each food class (Table 1). The food items were mixed together and manually made into pellets to feed albino rats.
The rats were all fed their respective feeds daily, weighed weekly and sacrificed at the end of the 6th week by anaesthesing them in a jar containing cotton wool soaked in diethyiether and disserting them quickly.
Collection and Treatment of Blood Samples:
Blood was collected from the animals by simply incising the jugular vein and evacuating the blood into heparinised bottle.
The Automated Haematologic Analyzer (Sysmex KX – 21) was used to analyze the haematological parameters like PCV, WBC, RBC, MCH, MCHC, HGB and PLT. The analyses were carried out based on standard methods 10, 11.
All data were analyzed statistically using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test 12. Significant difference between the treatment means was determined at 5% confidence limit using Duncan's Multiple Range Test 13.
Table 2 shows the proximate analysis of the formulated diets (test and control) on which the rats were maintained. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the various components of the diets.
The haematological parameter of rats fed with soybean oil and Tiger nut tuber oil based diets are shown in Table 3. There was no significant difference in all the Haematological parameters in the serum of Tiger nut oil based diet fed rats as compared to that of the soybean oil.
Nutritional status of an individual is dependent on dietary intake and effectiveness of metabolic processes. These can be determined by either or combinations of clinical, anthropometric, biochemical or dietary methods. The first worthy statement about the study is that none of the animals specimen died either naturally or due to feed ingestion The values obtained from proximate analysis of the formulated diets (Table 2) compared favourably with each other, indicating that the rats in both groups were placed on the same amount of nutrients quantitatively and therefore whatever differences that are noticed might be due to the differences in the quality of the nutrients in these diets or their bioavailability when consumed.
The absence of significant difference as shown in Table 3 among treatment groups for the hematological parameters added to the absence of mortality suggested tiger nut tuber oil is not toxic. It has been reported that the measurement of anaemia gives an indication of the severity of the disease 14. Packed cell volume is the volume by percentage of red cells in whole blood. The non significant reductions in the haematological parameters contents of the blood of rats reared on the oil based meal of tiger nut and soybean based meal is an indication that the oxygen carrying capacity of the animals’ blood is not reduced. The major function of the red blood cells is to transport haemoglobin, which in turn carries oxygen from the lungs to the tissues 15. The Hb concentrations and haematocrit are values revealing the degree of anemia while the MCHC is a useful index of the average Hb concentration of the red cells 16. Generally, low readings for RBC, Hb and hematocrit can indicate anaemia. Leucocytes are known to increase sharply when infection occurs, as one of the first line of defense of the body 17 .The increase in total while blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes counts following tiger nut oil feeding for 6-weeks confirms the anti-infection properties of tiger nut. According to Robins (1974), in a toxic environment, RBC count significantly decreased while WBC increased but such is not experienced in this study. The hemoglobin and packed cell volume of the rats were within acceptable range suggesting adequate iron status. This could be associated with the iron content of tiger nut oil which is a good source of non-heme iron 19. Non-heme iron from plant sources has been reported not to be as readily available to the body as heme iron from animal sources which are well absorbed 20. A non-significant difference in platelet number of control and test serves as an absence of marker disease such as microangiopathy and macroangiopathy 21. Thus, confirming Tigernut trader (2005) that tiger nut tuber oil may not contribute to the risk for cardiovascular diseases.
In conclusion, the various dietary treatments did not significantly affect the serum components meaning that the oil might be toxicological free. These findings, in effect show that this plant oil if adequately processed could substitute for expensive animal sources which are out of the reach of the poor. This confirms that the test diets are adequate for maintaining healthy nutrition status in weanling rats. Further work needs to be conducted on the effect of tiger nut oil on some selected organs in rats.