A Shahzad, G Koehler
A Shahzad, G Koehler. Fluorescence spectroscopy: An emerging excellent diagnostic tool in Medical Sciences. The Internet Journal of Medical Technology. 2008 Volume 5 Number 1.
In this article, we will discuss the various diagnostic applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in sub specialties of medical sciences. Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FS) is an emerging excellent diagnostic tool for many diseases especially early stage cancers. Fluorescence Spectroscopy prove to be more sensitive diagnostic tool with high efficacy as compared to routine diagnostic tools currently in use for many disorders. But, still there is great need for arrangement of Clinical trial on large scale to establish the validity of this new diagnostic technique. There is immediate need to highlight this issue.
We are thankful to Ms. Gabrielle Fieder for her kind support.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy which analyzes fluorescence from a sample. Sample is excited by using a beam of light which results in emission of light of a lower energy resulting in emission spectrum which is used to interpret results.7 There is increased trend to use fluorescence spectroscopy (FS) as a diagnostic tool in various sub specialties of medical sciences. In recent years, due to successful applications in various fields of medical sciences, FS is proved to be more sensitive technique and has potential to become more reliable diagnostic tool with high efficacy. Successful application of FS is achieved because of autofluorescence properties of various tissues of the organs. Also, presence of many chromophores makes it easy to use FP as a diagnostic technique for many disorders. Chromophores which are produce in excess as a result of pathologies in tissues or present in normal state include NADH, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and carotenoids.1 These chromophores contribute to the emission spectrum which is used for interpretation of diagnostic results along with other parameters.
Cancer is the major killer disease around the world. High mortality rate caused by cancer diseases can be reduced significantly by early diagnosis of cancer. Early diagnosis will enable to start treatment at early stage and chances of cure will increase with early treatment. But, unfortunately, many types of cancers are diagnosed at late stage which results in the failure of treatment. So, there is great need for diagnostic tools which can diagnose cancer at early stages. FS prove to be very useful in this regard. We will review the application of FS in this regard under various sub specialties headings. Many metabolic compounds like porphyrins are produce in excess amount in cancerous tissues due to rapid metabolism of cancerous tissue. These compounds are responsible for an emission spectrum which can be used for diagnosis of cancerous tissues along with other parameters.
Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for in
Fluorescence spectroscopy especially Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) prove to be excellent to understand anatomy and physiology of various hormones. Köhler et al
Alexandra Alimova et al (2004) used fluorescence spectroscopy for in situ investigations of bacteriophage as well as their host cells.3 They demonstrated that fluorescence may be a novel tool to detect viruses and monitor viral infection of cells. FCS has been used to study the biophysical characterization of HRV (a major Flu virus) in author’s Lab. These studies provide Valuable data for understanding virus-receptor interactions.4 FCS can be useful to study infectious processes of various important viruses, like endocytosis and intracellular processing of virus.
FS seems to be very promising diagnostic tool in cardiology field for many disorders. Fluorescent Studies on sheep heart indicate that FS can be applied for diagnosis of cardiomyopathis in human heart.12 But, there is lack of such studies in human heart tissue up till now. Atherosclerotic lesions can be diagnosed by means of LIFS.13 It was first studied by Blankenhorn and Braunstein in 1956. Sartori
Michael Jay Pitman
Diagnosis of Diabetes mellitus
Eppstien and Bursell showed that Fluorescence spectroscopy of the lens can be used for non-invasive diagnosis of diabetes mellitus22.
Metabolic state of the cornea can be monitored by means of Fluorescence spectroscopy. 23
Fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for the detection and localization of pathological dentin, pulpal remnants, and microorganisms within the root canal.24
Fluorescence Spectroscopy (FS) is promising diagnostic technique with high efficacy for various diseases of medical importance. Cancer is the second biggest killer in developed world. Cancers are diagnosed usually at late stage by routine diagnostic tools and treatment started at late stage usually fails to cure. There is great need for a diagnostic tool which can detect cancer at initial stages and can help to start treatment at initial stages.