I Alsaimary. Efficacy of some antibacterial agents against Streptococcus mutans associated with tooth decay. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2008 Volume 7 Number 2.
Tooth decay (dental caries) is a disease of multifactorial etiology. The essential factors include: the appropriate number and species of bacteria ,the type, quantity and frequency of consumption of fermentable carbohydrates, and susceptible tooth surfaces.(Loumans, etal; 1980) . Theoretically, tooth decay can be prevented by eliminating any one of these interacting factors. Water flouridation for example, has reduced caries by about (50%) without any additional therapeutic discipline. (yagot, 1981). The great deal of evidence has been accumulated which implicates
One of the most promising possibilities for the control of tooth decay involves the use of combined topical applications of fluoride with chemotherapeutic agents to increase the resistance of newly erupted teeth, enhance demineralization of hypomineralized enamel, and reduce microorganisms form infected teeth (Rupf, etal., 1999; Chen, etal., 1996).
This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial activity of extracts of
Materials and Methods
Sampling and culturing
A total of sixty oral swabs collected from buccal surfaces of the caries teeth of human subject (out patients of alshaheed qais specialized dentology center – Basrah ) were plated on blood agar (Oxoid). The plates were incubated aerobically for 24 hours at 37 C and identify the bacterial types.
The colonies of
Antibacterial agents preparartions:
Plant extracts: we used a fruit of pomegranate
Four types of pomegranate juice (red at pH = 6.4 and 4.6, and white at pH = 6.2 and 4.3).
Serial concentrations of fruit crust 50 – 1000 µg/ml were prepared according to (Al-Saimary & Baker, 2001).
Tooth pastes :
Three types of tooth pastes were used in this study: Signal-2 (Turkish), Close-up (Egyptian ), and Sinan (Chinian) and using three concentrations of each tooth pastes (100, 500, 1000 mcg/ml).
Six types of commercial antibiotics (Oxoid) were used in comparison study these are: Erythromycin (15 mcg), Penicillin G (10 unit), Vancomycin (30 mcg), Cephalexin (30 mcg), Tetracyclin (30 mcg) and gentamycin (10 mcg).
Measuring of antibacterial activity:
Agar diffusion (plate) method used to determine the growth inhibition zones (GIZ) (mm) by using Muller-Hinton Agar (Difco). 0.1 ml from 18-24 hours culture of
Tube (dilution) method used to determine Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) (μg/ml or mcg/ml) by using Brain-Heart Infusion (Oxoid). MIC: is the lowest concentration of antibacterial agents that kill the bacterial growth.
Form sixty samples of dental caries patients, the majority of bacterial types was for
E. coli 27.5%, Klebsiella 37.9%, Proteus 22.4%, Pseudomanas 41.3%, Stph. Aureus 17.2% and other Streptococcus spp. 51.7%. (Figure 1)
In Table (2) the mode of isolated bacterial types are shown, the biggest mode is for double pathogenes (34.48%), followed by third (27.58%), over than three pathogenes (24.13%), and single pathogene isolated from (13.79%) from total cases.
The total number of isolates is (161).
Table (3) summerized the results of antibacterial activity of plant extracts, tooth pastes, antibiotics determined by two methods Inhibition zone, MICs.
The nearest natural red pomegranate juice is effective more than the acidic and white natural and acidic white juice not effective.
The biggest diameter recorded for 1000 mcg/ml of fruit crust was (26 mm) than followed by other concentrations. Some of tooth pastes are not effective, however, in high concentration, but other such as signal-2 and close-up give 12,10 mm respectively of inhibition zones.
Concentration 100 mcg/ml of tooth pastes are not effective on growth of
In comparison – The standard antibiotics give the following inhibition zones:
16 mm of erythromycin, 10 mm of penicillin, 30 mm of vancomycin, 24 mm of cephalexin, 12 mm of tetracyclin and 22 mm of gentamycin.
The MICs for the plant extracts are as follow:
100-120 mcg/ml for pH 6.4 red juice and pH 6.2 white juice
200 mcg/ml for pH 4.6 red juice
400 mcg/ml for pH 4.3 white juice
80-90 mcg/ml for fruit crust
200-220 mcg/ml for signal-2 tooth paste
250-260 mcg/ml for close-up tooth paste
500 mcg/ml for sinan tooth paste
Bacteria have been identified as the etiologic agents of many medically – important infections in man and animals.
Many studies demonstrated that teeth were demineralized when exposed to salivary bacteria and carbohydrates
Our results accompanied above study and results of other studies such as (Jagtap & Karkera, 2000; Schuber, et al., 1999; Chen & Burne, 1996) who evidenced that the
Other studies demonstrated that the initiation of a history of a previous
The results of the present study revealed that pomegranate extracts- in especially- fruit crust extract is highly effective on growth of
Also these results may be correlated with the aspects involving the ecological balance and interaction of oral flora with the human host may appear to make prospects for chemotherapeutic management of dental caries a difficult task, and the mechanism of action of systemic fluorides not clearly understood.
Although clinical evidence suggested that at lest part of the action of systemic fluorides against caries must be a local action on or at the surface of erupted teeth (Yagot, 1981).
Conclusions & Recommendations
The high percentage of isolated more is for double mode (which yielded two bacterial types in same sample).
Studied tooth pastes give a lowest effects and some of it not effective on bacterial growth.
Plant extracts (pomegranate) varied in effects, the highest effect was for 1000 mcg/ml of fruit crust extract.
The limits of MICs for pomegranate extracts are between 80-400 mcg/ml and 200-500 mcg/ml for tooth paste concentrations.
The effects of plant extracts are within the range of effects of standard antibiotics studied in this investigation.
We conclude :
More care of oral cavity and teeth- in especially-.
Using a pomegranate extract or fruit crust after eating or before sleeping with combination to tooth paste.
Change the tooth paste in serial times within 2-3 months to prevent resistance of bacteria to tooth paste.