D Chatanta, C Attri, K Gopal, M Devi, G Gupta, T Bhalla
ethanol production, mtcc 151, mtcc 173, mtcc 1755, waste apple pomace
D Chatanta, C Attri, K Gopal, M Devi, G Gupta, T Bhalla. Bioethanol Production from Apple Pomace left after Juice Extraction. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2007 Volume 5 Number 2.
The production of ethanol from low cost lignocellulosic materials such as crop waste and horticulture waste has considerable promise as a future source of liquid transport fuel. In the present study the pomace left after juice extraction was collected from HPMC, Parwanoo, H.P and used as a substrate for bioethanol production. Different microbial strains viz.
Bioethanol production from sugarcane was started in Brazil and the United States in the early 1970 (Classen
SSF of lignocellulosics leading to the production of biofuels, animal feed, human food and chemicals is economical and should be practiced in developing countries (Sharma
Materials and methods
Sample and microorganism
Waste apple pomace was obtained from fruit processing unit of HPMC at Parwanoo (Himachal Pradesh), India.
Ethanol production was carried out under solid state fermentation system (SSF). SSF of apple pomace was carried out at different temperature (25 oC, 30 oC, 40oC) and compared with fermentation in synthetic medium (yeast extract 3g, peptone 10 g, dextrose 20 g per litre, pH 6.5 ). For all experiments 100 g of apple pomace (67% moisture) was taken in 1000 ml round bottom flasks and to this 1% (v/w) of inoculum was added and allowed to ferment at 30oC for 48h. Apple pomace was fermented under similar conditions for ethanol production with three combinations of microorganisms viz., i)
Recovery and ethanol and analysis
Ethanol produced was recovered using Buchi rotary vaccum evaporator at 78 oC. The distillate collected was analyzed for ethanol and residual sugar. Ethanol was estimated using Caputi
Results and discussion
Waste apple pomace obtained from the fruit processing unit of HPMC contained 76% moisture and the same is maintained in the pomace before its fermentation.
Temperature had a profound influence on the rate of alcoholic fermentation of waste apple pomace. Ethanol production was carried out at different temperature to verify the best temperature for ethanol production with waste apple pomace (Fig. 2). The result showed 30°C as best temperature for ethanol production as compared with 25°C and 40°C. Similar results were observed earlier by Hang
Preliminary studies have revealed that the apple pomace fermented by the yeast (
The initial sugar concentration present in waste pomace after juice extraction was 3.21 % (w/w). During the fermentation process the sugar level decreased at different time intervals up to 96 h however the maximum ethanol production was observed at 72 h after this there was a decrease in ethanol production at 96 h of incubation in all combinations (Fig. 3-5). This could be due to inhibition of enzyme activity by high concentrations of cellobiose and glucose during saccharification. One of the method used to decrease this inhibition is to ferment the reduced sugar along their release (Gnansounou and Dauriat 2005 ).The amount of ethanol produced varied apparently dependent upon the initial amount of sugar concentration of the apple pomace fermented.
A solid state fermentation process has been reported for the production of ethanol from apple pomace using consortia of cultures viz.,