Effects of chemically synthesized Azole compounds on Clinical isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis, in comparison with commercially available anti-fungal drugs
B Kikani, K Kikani, S Pathak
anti-fungal drugs, disc diffusion method, opportunistic mycosis, vaginal candidiasis
B Kikani, K Kikani, S Pathak. Effects of chemically synthesized Azole compounds on Clinical isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis, in comparison with commercially available anti-fungal drugs. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2007 Volume 5 Number 1.
Candida species is observed as the most common cause of 'Opportunistic Mycoses' worldwide. Candida species is a member of normal flora of skin, mouth, vagina, and stool. Infections caused by Candida species are in general referred to as Candidiasis. Vaginal Candidiasis is a fungal or yeast infection of the vulva and/or vagina, which causes a smelly, thick, white-yellow discharge, which might be accompanied by itching, burning and swelling. It can also can make walking, urinating or sex very painful.
The Genus Candida includes around 154 species. While Candida albicans is the most abundant and significant species; importantly, there has been a recent increase in infections due to non-albicans Candida species along with increasing drug resistance.
The present study includes isolation of Candida species from the patients suffering from vaginal candidiasis followed by identification and differentiation between different Candida species by their morphological studies, microbiological analysis and biochemical activities, which are: C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata & C. krusei.
The present study also includes a comparative study of anti-microbial activities of commercially available anti-fungal drugs as well as 22 novel chemically synthesized 1% DMSO soluble compounds (belonging to Azoles) by “Disc Diffusion Method” according to NCCLS Guidelines. Out of which 5 compounds were found to be remarkably effective, especially AntiC-15 was found to be the most potent and excellent among all; which exhibits its inhibitory effects against some drug resistant isolates also. It is sent for further study in order to use it at commercial level.
Vaginal Candidiasis is a fungal or yeast infection of the vulva and/or vagina. It causes a smelly, thick, white-yellow discharge that might be accompanied by itching, burning and swelling. It can also can make walking, urinating or sex very painful.
Importantly, there has been a recent increase in infections due to non-albicans
Material & Methods
The study group includes different patients suffering from Vaginal Candidiasis with varying degree of severity.
Isolation, Identification and Differentiation between species:
Isolation from other Yeasts:
Germ – tube Test:
Carbohydrate Utilization Profiles:
In present study, we have analyzed 22 heterocyclic chemical compounds (1% DMSO soluble); synthesized at Chemistry Department, Saurashtra University at Rajkot by preparing discs of these compounds with different concentrations [5µg/disc, 10µg/disc, 15µg/disc] using sterile discs from Hi-Media. It is followed by analyzing their anti-microbial activities on clinical isolates by
Novel Heterocyclic Compounds
During the experiment, One disc having 1% DMSO/disc was kept in each plate as a standard to check any inhibitory effect of the solvent as well as one plate kept as a control inoculated with the respective isolate only, without any disc.
Observation & Results
The aim of the present study was to investigate pathogenic yeast organisms, mainly
Total 27 isolates of
Out of 22 heterocyclic compounds [belonging to Azoles], 5 compounds were found to be remarkably efficient; especially, “AntiC-15” was found to be the most potent and excellent among all, giving anti-microbial activity even at 10µg/disc.
Many isolates were found to be relatively more sensitive to commercial drugs, were also found to be fairly good susceptible to the heterocyclic compounds. Certain isolates have been found to be relatively more resistant to commercially used drugs but still found to be susceptible at least to AntiC-15.
PH : Pseudohyphae
GT : Germ-tube formation
CHS : Chlamydospore
G : Glucose
S : Sucrose
L : Lactose
M : Maltose
Gal : Galactose
T : Trehlose
R : Reffinose
C : Cellobiose
+ : Positive, - : Negative, : Variable
Discussion & Conclusion
Out of 27 isolates;
Along with increasing number of non-albicans species; interestingly, the drug resistance to commercially available drugs also increases as well as each drug is having certain mild to severe side effects; so, now there is extreme need to evaluate and to use newer and more potent drugs.
Among all isolates, the overall general sensitivity gradation is as follows:
However, among the anti-fungal drugs, the overall sensitivity gradation is as follows:
Amphotericin-B > Itraconazole > Fluconazole > Nystatin > Ketoconazole
Out of 22 chemical compounds, 5 compounds were found to be remarkably efficient; especially, AntiC-15 was found to be the most potential and excellent among all.
AntiC-15 is sent for further analysis in order to use it at commercial level against candidiasis.
We are thankful to Mr. Vipul S. Jadav, Microcare Diagnostic Laboratory, Rajkot for providing necessary laboratory facilities; Dr. Anamik Shah, Department of Chemistry, Saurashtra University, Rajkot for providing the Heterocyclic Chemical Compounds (belonging to Azoles) to check their anti-microbial activity; and to the entire staff of Department of Microbiology, Shri. C.U. Shah Medical College, Surendranagar at Gujarat for their constant support and invaluable guidance.