J Ajobiewe, S Olorunmaiye, K Akinmusire, H Ajobiewe, A Dangana
anova, aspergillus, blastomyces, currency notes, dermati tidis, dirty, fungi, mint, tattered
J Ajobiewe, S Olorunmaiye, K Akinmusire, H Ajobiewe, A Dangana. Medical Implications Of The Fungi Flora Of Naira - “A Nigerian Currency”. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. 2012 Volume 10 Number 2.
Money is defined as anything that is widely used for making payments and accounting for debts and credits.1 The possibility that currency notes might act as environmental vehicles for the transmission of potential pathogenic microorganisms was first suggested by Abram’s and Waterman (1972).2 Paper currency is widely exchanged for goods and services in countries worldwide. It is used for every type of commerce, ranging from buying milk at a local store to trafficking in sex and drugs.
The official currency in Nigeria is the naira notes. Its denomination ranges from N5, N10, N20, N50, N100, N200, N500 and N1000 notes. Mishandling of naira notes by people usually lead to its contamination. The contamination of naira notes and its public health implications have not been well documented especially those of fungi contaminants because little or no research has been done on this area. Contamination may be introduced to the naira notes during production, from the atmosphere or from various uses and abuses of the naira notes - likewise during storage .3
A completely randomized sample collection design.
Ho; The fungi flora of the various denominations of Nigerian currency Notes does not differ significantly.
Ha: The fungi flora of the various denominations of Nigerian currency Notes differ significantly.
Result From Subcutured Colonies After A High Serial Dilution
The F statistics showed that the calculated value was far less than the tabulated value; we thus accepted the null hypothesis i.e. “The fungi flora of the various denominations of Nigerian currency notes does not differ significantly”. This simply implied that the fungi flora was quite independent of the denominations of the Nigerian currency notes. The study thus shows that Nigerian currency notes are indiscriminately contaminated with a variety of fungi species some of which are pathogens. This finding confirms the report that currency notes are contaminated with micro organisms- such as fungi. Some authors 5,6,7 had similarly reported such findings. In fact, currency notes serve as vehicles for transmitting infectious diseases to humans. This current research identified the following medically important fungi: Blastomyces dermatitidis, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus. Blastomyces dermatitidis is a thermally dimorphic fungus and a probable saprobe of the soil. It specifically inhabits decaying wood material. It is very rarely isolated as a natural habitat. Isolation from the environment is most likely when the sample contains soil and is rich in organic material such as animal faeces, plant fragments, insect remains, and dust. If the substrate is moist, lacks exposure to direct sunlight, contains organic debris, and has a pH of less than 6.0, isolation of Blastomyces dermatitidis is probable.8 It is the causative agent of
Although Blastomyces dermatitidis is a pathogenic fungus and blastomycosis occurs mainly in immunocompetent hosts10. It may also affect immunocompromised patients, indicating that Blastomyces dermatitidis has now emerged as an opportunistic pathogen11. Aspergillus niger is ubiquitous in nature. The surface colonies are initially white, quickly becoming black with conidial production. Reverse is pale yellow and growth may produce radial fissures in the agar. The organism is a common secondary invader following bacterial otitis12. It may also cause pulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients and the production of oxalate crystals in clinical specimens13. A niger is less likely to cause human disease than some other Aspergillus species, large amount of spore inhaled, a serious lung disease Aspergillosis can occur. Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungus that plays an essential role in recycling environmental carbon and nitrogen14. Its natural ecological niche is the soil, wherein it survives and grows on organic debris. Although this species is not the most prevalent fungus in the world, it is one of the most ubiquitous of those with airborne conidia15. Inhalation of conidia by immunocompetent individuals rarely has any adverse effect, since the conidia are eliminated relatively efficiently by innate immune mechanisms. Thus, until recent years,
All currency notes in use may be potential sources of disseminating hazardous fungi pathogens no matter the type, - dirty, tattered, nor minted naira notes. Serious caution must be taken while they are in circulation as compulsory media for business transactions. –as a check towards the acquisition of mycological borne infectious diseases.
We sincerely thank the all colleagues and friends in the department of Microbiology University of Maiduguri, Imo-state University Owerri, Abuja study centre, and Gwagwalada Teaching Hospital Abuja, F.C.T. Students of Regina Pacis college Abuja, ---for their contributions both at sample collection and for assistance in other highly specialized areas of the study , worthy of mention are Drs. Aloysius Ebedi, Dr. Falodun of the National Hospital Abuja, Dermatology Department , Jonathan Madukwe , Eze Glory Obiageli(Mrs.)