Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: Recommendation Statement: United States Preventive Services Task Force
United States Preventive Services Task Force
United States Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria: Recommendation Statement: United States Preventive Services Task Force. The Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2003 Volume 3 Number 2.
Summary of Recommendations
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) strongly recommends screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria with urine culture for pregnant women at 12-16 weeks' gestation.
The USPSTF found good evidence that screening pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria with urine culture significantly reduces symptomatic urinary tract infections, low birth weight, and preterm delivery. The benefits of screening and treatment substantially outweigh any potential harms.
The USPSTF recommends against routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in men and non-pregnant women.
The USPSTF found fair evidence that screening men and non-pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria is ineffective in improving clinical outcomes. In the absence of evidence of benefit, the potential harms associated with overuse of antibiotics are especially significant.
The screening tests used commonly in the primary care setting (dipstick analysis and direct microscopy) have poor positive and negative predictive value for detecting bacteriuria in asymptomatic persons. Urine culture is the gold standard for detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria but is expensive for routine screening in populations with a low prevalence of this condition. Results from one study done with a new enzymatic urine-screening test (UriscreenTM) showed that the test has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 81%.
Good evidence exists that screening pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria with urine culture (rather than urinalysis) significantly reduces symptomatic urinary tract infections, low birth weight, and preterm delivery. A specimen obtained at 12-16 weeks' gestation will detect approximately 80% of patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. The optimal frequency of subsequent urine testing during pregnancy is uncertain.
Good evidence exists that screening individuals other than pregnant women for asymptomatic bacteriuria does not significantly improve clinical outcomes. Results from a study of women with diabetes who were treated for asymptomatic bacteriuria demonstrated no reduction in complications.
4Although there were short-term results in clearing bacteriuria with antimicrobial therapy, there was no decrease in the number of symptomatic episodes or hospitalizations over the long term. Furthermore, the high rate of recurrence of bacteriuria in those who were screened and treated resulted in a marked increase in the use of antimicrobial agents.
Corresponding author: Ned Calonge, MD, MPH, Chair, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, c/o Program Director, USPSTF, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 540 Gaither Road, Rockville, MD 20850, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Members of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force* are Alfred O. Berg, MD, MPH, Chair, USPSTF (Professor and Chair, Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA); Janet D. Allan, PhD, RN, CS, Vice-chair, USPSTF (Dean, School of Nursing, University of Maryland Baltimore, Baltimore, MD); Ned Calonge, MD, MPH (Acting Chief Medical Officer, Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Denver, CO); Paul Frame, MD (Tri-County Family Medicine, Cohocton, NY, and Clinical Professor of Family Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY); Joxel Garcia, MD, MBA (Deputy Director, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC); Russell Harris, MD, MPH (Associate Professor of Medicine, Sheps Center for Health Services Research, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC); Mark S. Johnson, MD, MPH (Professor of Family Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ); Jonathan D. Klein, MD, MPH (Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester School of Medicine, Rochester, NY); Carol Loveland-Cherry, PhD, RN (Executive Associate Dean, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Virginia A. Moyer, MD, MPH (Professor, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas at Houston, Houston, TX); C. Tracy Orleans, PhD (Senior Scientist, The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ); Albert L. Siu, MD, MSPH (Professor of Medicine, Chief of Division of General Internal Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY); Steven M. Teutsch, MD, MPH (Senior Director, Outcomes Research and Management, Merck & Company, Inc., West Point, PA); Carolyn Westhoff, MD, MSc (Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Professor of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY); and Steven H. Woolf, MD, MPH (Professor, Department of Family Practice and Department of Preventive and Community Medicine and Director of Research Department of Family Practice, Virginia Commonwealth University, Fairfax, VA).
*Members of the Task Force at the time this recommendation was finalized. For a list of current Task Force members, go to http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfab.htm.
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