Micro-Anatomical Effect Of Tahitian Noni Dietary Supplement On The Heart Of Caffeine-Treated Sprague- Dawley Rats
R Bassey, O Yama, A Osinubi, C Noronha, A Okanlawon
caffeine, cholesterol, heart, tahitian noni
R Bassey, O Yama, A Osinubi, C Noronha, A Okanlawon. Micro-Anatomical Effect Of Tahitian Noni Dietary Supplement On The Heart Of Caffeine-Treated Sprague- Dawley Rats. The Internet Journal of Health. 2009 Volume 11 Number 2.
AIM: This study was designed to assess the effects of Tahitian Noni on the heart of Caffeine-treated rats.METHODS: Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing between 105-200 g were used. They were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 was the control. Group 2 received 200mg/kg of caffeine for 8 weeks, group 3 received 200mg/kg of caffeine for 4 weeks and 5ml/kg of Noni for another 4 weeks, group 4 received both 200mg/kg of caffeine and 5ml/kg of Noni for 8 weeks, group 5 received 5ml/kg of Noni for 8 weeks, group 6 received 5ml/kg of Noni for 4 weeks and 200mg/kg of caffeine for another 4 weeks. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in cholesterol levels and body weights of treated groups when compared to control. The histological sections showed focal necrosis in groups 2, 3and 4 with degenerative changes observed in group 2. Groups 5 and 6 tended towards normal.CONCLUSION: Tahitian noni dietary supplement modulates the effect of a high dose of caffeine on the heart.
Caffeine is the world’s most widely consumed psychoactive substance, but unlike most other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all jurisdictions . An estimated 80% of the world’s population consumes a caffeine-containing substance daily .
Caffeine is considered a psychoactive substance since it stimulates the central nervous system and alters mood and behavior. Heroin, cocaine, marijuana, nicotine and alcohol are also examples of psychoactive drugs. Physiological effects may be seen in adults after as little as one cup of coffee or two cans of cola .
Heart disease is currently the number one cause of death for both men and women in the United States and in many other developing countries . Caffeine and coffee consumption adversely affects cholesterol and other lipid levels, homocysteine, blood pressure, arrhythmias and stress levels, increasing the risk of heart disease .
For people who are genetically slow metabolizers of caffeine, drinking coffee significantly raises the risk of developing a heart attack, or experiencing a myocardial infarction .
This work is therefore designed to evaluate experimentally the effect of Tahitian
Materials and Methods
Thirty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, 16-20 weeks old and weighing between 105-200 g were obtained from the Department of Biochemistry, College of medicine, University of Lagos. The rats were housed in well-ventilated metal cages under standard conditions of temperature (25 ± 5°C) in the department of Anatomy, College of medicine, University of Lagos. Animals were exposed to a photo period of 12 hours light, alternating with 12 hours darkness. They were allowed access to standard laboratory food and water
The thirty male rats were divided randomly into six groups of five rats each. The experimental groups received daily oral doses of the drugs as follows: Group 1, the control received daily oral dose of distilled water. Group 2 received 200 mg/kg of caffeine for 8 weeks, Group 3 received 200 mg/kg of caffeine for 4 weeks and 5 ml/kg of Noni for another 4 weeks, Group 4 received both 200 mg/kg of caffeine and 5 ml/kg of Noni for 8 weeks, Group 5 received 5 ml/kg of Noni for 8 weeks, Group 6 received 5 ml/kg of Noni for 4 weeks and 200 mg/kg of caffeine for another 4 weeks. Body weight was recorded weekly for every group.
At the end of the experiments, the animals were sacrificed a day after last dose of extract. All sacrifices were done under mild anaesthesia with intra-peritoneal ketamine hydrochloride at a dose titrated against consciousness starting with 0.01 ml. The heart was dissected out and processed for histological work as follows: the heart from each animal was fixed, embedded in paraffin wax, sectioned at 5 micrometer and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin stain.
Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Analysis was carried out using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Scheffe’s post hoc test. The level of significance was considered at
The microscopic examination of the prepared histological sections showed a normal endocardium in all the groups but in the myocardium, focal necrosis was observed in groups 2, 3and 4 with degenerative changes observed in group 2. Dilated blood filled pericardial vessels was also observed. Groups 5 and 6 tended towards normal when compared with control.
There was a statistically significant decrease (
The results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in cholesterol levels from 45.2±3.4 (control) to 55.4±4.7 in the groups treated with caffeine only (group 2). There was no statistically significant difference (
Many studies have been done to see if there is a direct link between caffeine and coronary heart disease. The results are conflicting. The histological findings in the result of this study support the fact that a high dose of caffeine predisposes to heart disease.
Of recent, some researchers have reported that cafestol and kahweol are the active chemicals in coffee and are mechanistically responsible for the increase in serum cholesterol level after coffee consumption . Gordon
There was a statistically significant decrease in the body weights of the group treated with caffeine. A few studies indicate that drinking coffee or tea with caffeine may slightly boost weight loss or prevent weight gain. But there's no evidence that increased caffeine consumption results in significant or permanent weight loss . Tahitian Noni however, was able to modulate the effect of caffeine on body weight. It enhances the body's healing system and as an adaptogen, brings the body into normal balance . There is however a dearth of literature on the mechanisms by which Tahitian noni dietary supplement produces these effects.
Tahitian Noni dietary supplement modulates the effect of a high dose of caffeine on the heart.