L Olayaki, S Gesua, O Jimoh, M Ajao, A Olawepo, M Ighodalo
litter size, ocimum gratissimum, serum progesterone
L Olayaki, S Gesua, O Jimoh, M Ajao, A Olawepo, M Ighodalo. A Study Of Correlation Between Derived And Basic Anthropometric Indices In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The Internet Journal of Endocrinology. 2008 Volume 5 Number 2.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that 4 billion people, i.e. 80% of the world population, use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care (Farnsworth
Materials And Methods
Preparation of Extract
Treatment of Rats
Twenty one albino rats (
All animals were housed in plastic cage with stainless still steel mesh cover under standard laboratory conditions (light period 6.30am to 7.00pm), temperature 27±20C, relative humidity 55%, with food and water freely available. They received humane care.
The rats were divided into three groups of Control, 100mg/kg
Female and male rats were caged together during the night. The morning that conception was verified by the presence of sperm in a vaginal smear was designated gestational day 0.
On the 19th day, the animals were sacrificed by means of cervical displacement. Blood was taken and the uteri removed allowing for examination of the foetuses. The number of resorptions, weight of foetuses, size and external morphological examination were recorded (Beck, 1989).
External Examination of the Foetuses
With the help of a magnifying glass, the presence or absence of cleft palate was observed, as well as the position of eye and ear implantations, the tail (form and length). The extremities were examined for abnormalities such as polydactyl and syndactyl.
Immediately after the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected from the heart by syringe and transferred to plain tube. Samples were then centrifuged at 40C and serum from each rat was stored at -200C. Serum progesterone concentration was determined by enzyme immunoassay technique (Progesterone Enzyme Immunoassay Test Kit, Catalog No. 2077Z, Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, U.S.A.).
Data were expressed as mean±SEM. Statistical significance was determined using Student’s t-test. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Effects of aqueous extract of
There was reduction in litter weight from 6.7±0.7g in the control group to 4.5±0.1g (p<0.0002) and 4.3±0.2g (p<0.0003) in the 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg treated groups respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the litter weight among the treated groups.
Aqueous extract of
There was statistically significant increase in serum progesterone in
The results of our study indicate that aqueous extract of
Some of the constituents of
Progesterone has an antiestrogenic effect on the myometrial cell, decreasing their excitability, their sensitivity to oxytocin, and their spontaneous electrical activity while increasing their membrane potential (Ganong, 2003). The increased litter size could be due to the ability of progesterone to reduce myometrial cells excitability, thereby increasing the number of implantation and subsequent number of life fetuses. The reduced litter weight could be due to increased number of fetuses, but because of the accompanied reduction in maternal weight there might be associated antinutrient agents in the
There is need for further study in order to isolate the active compound that is responsible for the increased progesterone and those that are responsible for the reduced maternal weight and fetal weight. In conclusion, oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of