P Namboodiripad, K Srividya
antiadhesive, antibacterial, caries, coffee, streptococcus mutans
P Namboodiripad, K Srividya. Can Coffee Prevent Caries? - An In-Vitro Study. The Internet Journal of Dental Science. 2008 Volume 7 Number 2.
Caries is considered as one of the main problems of public health, so, many researchers in the world, have been searching for alternatives to prevent the occurrence of this process. The adherence of bacterial cells to teeth surface is of great importance to the
development of caries lesions and the interference on some of these mechanisms can prevent the formation of carious lesions. Antimicrobial and anticariogenic properties of tea have been extensively studied. 1 Few studies on the antimicrobial activity of coffee-based solutions are found in the literature. Coffee contains several compounds which are known to affect human body chemistry. It helps in reducing risk of Alzheimer's disease, of Parkinson's disease, increases the effectiveness of pain killers, as an antidiabetic, prevents liver disease and cancer and is an antioxidant. 2 Coffee is classified in the
Toda et al. related the effects of coffee on microbial species such as
tanic acid. Daglia et al. studying dark roasted coffee described that a compound originated during the roasting process and it had very strong antibacterial activity. Caffeine in the coffee is responsible for its antibacterial effect but not for anti adhesive properties. A six-ounce cup of coffee contains 100-150 mg of caffeine. This compound was effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative reference strains, such as
Materials And Methods
Thirty volunteers, both males and females about the ages of 18-25 years, from KLE Society’s Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore, randomly picked, with no significant past or present medical history were selected for the study. Volunteers below 18 and above 25 years were excluded from the study. Their in-formed consent was obtained. This study was approved by Local Ethical Committee (KLE Societys Institute of Dental Sciences, Belgaum)
Coffee solution was obtained by boiling for 2 minutes, either alone, or in combination with sugar and milk. One milliliter(ml) of saliva of these volunteers, was diluted in 100 ml of distilled water and 1ml of this 100 ml, which contained saliva and distilled water, was added to BHI( Brain Heart Infusion) broth and incubated for 48 hrs at 37ºC. One µl of this turbid broth was plated on a Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin(MSB) agar plate and again incubated anerobically at 37 ºC for 48 hours. Greenish yellow colonies were identified and counted. Confirmation for
Colony forming units per × 10 3 ml of saliva were counted. Wells containing 1) coffee 2)coffee+milk-sugar 3)coffee+milk+sugar were made on a S.mutans streaked BHI agar plate. The colonies formed around these beverages were counted and was called as the colony forming unit(CFU). (figure 1)
Filter paper disks 5 millimeter in size soaked in 1)
. The different combinations of milk and sugar with coffee were taken as this is the method by which the coffee is consumed in the world. Zone of inhibition around the filter paper disks were measured in millimeters.
Glass beads about 0.5 mm diameter and soaked in saliva of the 30 volunteers were placed on the
. The adhesion of the organism to the saliva coated glass beads was studied by inserting the glass beads from this plate to a BHI broth which was again incubated for 48 hrs at 37° C. The glass beads were agitated using a vortex mixer. The turbidity in the broth would indicate that organism adhered to glass beads and clear solution would indicate no adhesion.
Confirmation of this study was done using Streptococcus
The results showed that there was colony growth, colony forming unit (CFU) in the MSB agar plate and it was about 1.02 ×10 5 CFU in case of
Where c =coffee, m=milk, s=sugar, Zone of inhibition in millimeters, CFU= ( ) ×10 5 , adherence to glass beads--[Y=Yes=1]; [N=no adherence =2]
No statistically significant difference was observed among log CFU/mL values obtained for experimental groups and control (p=0.05).
Zone of inhibition :=> Mean=1.5, Median=1, SD=1.914, Variance=3.666
CFU =>Mean=1.075, Median =1.285, SD= 0.72968 and Variance was 0.53243
A student ‘t’test calculated by Maths Calculator showed a value of :
t = 0.4150; df = 6; standard error of difference = 1.024; sdev= 1.45; degrees of freedom = 6 and a confidence interval of 95% was obtained.
The probability of this result, assuming the null hypothesis, is 0.69
Dental plaque has been implicated as the principal etiological factor in both dental caries and periodontal diseases.
It is well known that, free radical induced, oxidative stress is an important factor in the etiology of many pathological processes. Much attention has been focused on the
antioxidants in food that may have beneficial physiological effects. Antioxidants help support the immune system and help fight the spread of cancer.
Roasting markedly affects the composition of the coffee polyphenols through the Maillard reaction and confers to coffee its pleasant taste and aroma (Richelle et al, 2001). However, although natural antioxidants 7 are lost during heating, the overall antioxidant properties of coffee brews can be maintained or enhanced by the formation of new antioxidants such as the Maillard reaction products (Nicoli et al, 1997a). 8 Roasted coffee extract possesses antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms, including
Caffeine 13 which is one of the ingredients of coffee, acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. Studies have found that the addition of caffeine, which has weak intrinsic antibacterial activity, to a mixture of α-dicarbonyl compounds at the concentrations found in coffee, demonstrated that caffeine synergistically enhances the antibacterial activity of α-dicarbonyl compounds and that glyoxal, methylglyoxal, and diacetyl in the presence of caffeine account for the whole antibacterial activity of roasted coffee. 3 This observation has been confirmed by our study.
Considering that coffee is constituted by several substances such as water, mineral substances, glucides, lipids, organic acids, alkaloids, tanic acids, theobromine, cafein and several vitamins, the isolated evaluation of each compound may clarify the specific agent related to its anti-adhesive effect [[[.1]]] It was suggested that trigonelline, an alkaloid and a water-soluble compound in coffee that contributed to the aroma and flavour of the beverage, may be responsible for coffee’s anti-adhesive activity. In the absence of animal model data, caution is advised in the interpretation of the in vivo significance of these results 14 Melanoidin was another one of the reasons for this antiadhesive action 15 reported Science News.
But roasting reduces the trigonelline to niacin, and hence antiadhesive action of coffee on
Coffee anti-caries potential is related to its capacity of altering the biosynthesis of extra cellular polysaccharides (mainly
“Black coffee must be strong and very hot; if strong coffee does not agree with you, do not drink black coffee. And if you do not drink black coffee, do not drink any coffee at all.” ~