N Goel, Gurpreet, H Swami
N Goel, Gurpreet, H Swami. How To Deal With Emerging And Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases Globally?. The Internet Journal of Biological Anthropology. 2006 Volume 1 Number 1.
The emergence of new infectious diseases, re-emergence of old infectious diseases and persistence of intractable infectious diseases, all led to persistence and even increase in infectious diseases in many parts of the world. Important Emerging diseases are Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), SARS, Influenza, Hepatitis, Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Bloody diarrhea – by Escherichia coli, Cholera, Legionella pneumonia and Lymes disease. Important Re-emerging diseases are Tuberculosis, Dengue fever, Malaria, Meningococcal meningitis, West Nile fever, Bubonic plague and Hanta virus pulmonary syndrome. The factors responsible for emergence and re-emergence of these diseases are changes in human demographics, changing human behavior, increased international travel and commerce, changes in genetic make-up, inappropriate land use and irrigation projects, and inappropriate and inadequate health infrastructure, especially in developing countries. The key components of the response are Surveillance and outbreak verification, Prevention and control programs / strategies, Capacity building of Public Health infrastructure and Research.
Infectious diseases remain among leading causes of death worldwide despite remarkable advances in medical research and treatments. According to World Health Organization 2004 World Health Report, infectious diseases accounted for about 26% of the 57 million deaths worldwide in 2002.1 In addition, nearly 30% of all disability adjusted life years (DALYs) could be accounted to infectious diseases.1 It was thought that it might be possible with interventions available to 'close the book' on infectious diseases and shift public health measures to chronic diseases.2 But emergence of new infectious diseases, re-emergence of old infectious diseases and persistence of intractable infectious diseases, all led to persistence and even increase in infectious diseases in many parts of the world.
Emerging Infectious Diseases
It includes outbreaks of previously unknown diseases or known diseases whose incidence in humans has significantly increased in the past two decades.3
Re-emerging Infectious Diseases
These are the known diseases that have reappeared after a significant decline in incidence.3
List Of Emerging & Re-Emerging Diseases
Important Emerging Diseases
Factors Responsible For Emergence & Re-Emergence Of Diseases,
Response To Threat
In response to this threat of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, various international & national organizations have come together to combat this threat. Various agencies like World Health Organization (WHO), Centre for Disease Control (CDC), National Institute of Health (NIH),
Department of Defense & FDA, all have come together to work in collaboration to develop strategic plans to combat the microbial emergence and re-emergence.
The key components of the response are:
Global / Regional level laboratory surveillance
Global / Regional level epidemiological surveillance
Global & National Surveillance Systems / Networks
Examples of Networks
In addition to above networks, following networks are also there for surveillance of various emerging and re-emerging diseases:
Prevention and Control
Capacity Building / Infrastructure Development
Dr.N.K.Goel Professor Deptt. of Community Medicine, Government Medical College & Hospital, Sector-32, Chandigarh, INDIA Phone- +91172-2665253 Ext. 1043 Mobile- +919876521536 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org