C Nosiri, I Hussaini, I Abdu-Aguye
atropine, contraction, irvingia gabonensis, muscarinic receptor, pirenzepine, verapamil
C Nosiri, I Hussaini, I Abdu-Aguye. Effect Of Irvingia Gabonensis Leaf Extracts On Non Pregnant Rat Uterus. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 8 Number 2.
The effects of ethanol and water extracts of the leaves of
The inedible fruit pulp is bitter and acrid although it can be eaten and has a turpentine flavor (Udeala et al, 1980) It acts as a source of human food and commonly known as Ogbono in Igbo land of Nigeria where it is used as a soup thickner. The seeds are rich in oil (54 – 67%) calculated on dry kernel. This is known as “dika” fat, which has been evaluated and used now as a tablet lubricant (Udeala et al, 1980). It has been reported that the seeds reduces fasting blood glucose levels in obese subjects (Ngondi et al, 2005). The leaf extract has also been reported to increase urine output and electrolytes in adult wistar rats (Nosiri et al, 2010). A decoction of the stem back of
Preliminary phytochemical screening of the aqueous leaf extract of
Materials And Methods
Collection and Preparation of Plant Material
The leaves of
The plant leaves were obtained in large quantities and left to dry at room temperature for two days after which they were dried in an oven at 35 – 400C for 36 hrs. After that some of the leaves were ground into a coarse powder. The powdered leaves were kept in an air-tight glass container and stored in a dry place. 50g of the powder was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus for continuous extraction. The extracts (ethanol and water) were concentrated and dried under vacuum. The percent yield was 8.4% for ethanol extract and 0.82% for cold water extract.
Adult female wistar rats weighing 200-270g were obtained from the animal house of the department of Pharmacology/ Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. They were maintained on Master feeds and water
Preparation of isolated uterine horn
The adult female
The fat and mesentery were detached from the uterus and the latter was cut into left and right horns. Each uterine horn was mounted into an organ bath (20ml) under initial tension of 2g and contractions were measured isometrically using transducer (Ugo Basile) connected to a recording microdynamometer (7050). The preparation was allowed to equilibrate for 1hr before drugs were added.
Effect of extract on the rat uterine smooth muscle
Standard drugs (Ach, (5µg/ml), atropine (14nM), pirenzepine (0.1µM), and verapamil (0.1µM) and extracts were injected into the organ bath with syringe and needle to study their pharmacological effects. After the administration of each drug and/or extract, the tissues were washed three times, allowed to rest for two minutes before the addition of another drug or extract.To investigate the mechanism involved in the contraction of the uterus induced by the ethanol extract, pirenzepine an M1 – muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (a non – specific muscarinic receptor antagonist) and verapamil (calcium antagonist) were used in the study. The latter was used to examine the involvement of extracellular calcium, added to the
Test on Rat Ileum
The ileum of both male and female wistar rats was set up the same way except that the physiological solution used was
All values were expressed as mean ±SEM and results analysed using student’s t-test. P values less than 0.5% were taken to be statistically significant.
Effect of ethanol extract and Ach on the isolated rat uterine smooth muscle
Fig. 1. Effect of Ach and Ethanol Extract of
Fig. 1 shows the contractile effects of Acetylcholine (Ach) (0.5 – 20 µg/ml) and ethanol extract of
Effect of extract and Ach in the absence and presence of pirenzepine, atropine and verapamil on rat uterine muscle
When the contractile effects of Ach and ethanol extract of I.
In Fig. 2, Pirenzepine (0.1μM) an M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist shifted the dose – response curve for the ethanol extract to the right but the maximum response to the extract was reproduced in the presence of this antagonist.
Fig. 3 shows the effect of verapamil in the absence and presence of verapamil. Verapamil (0.1μM) reduced the contractile effects of both acetylcholine (0.2 and 0.4 µg/ml) and ethanol extract (200 and 400 µg/ml) on the tissue by approximately 46 -56% and 61-90% respectively.
Ethanol extract produced a dose – related contraction on the non-pregnant rat uterus and had no effect on rat ileum. Water extract of