Anti-Ulcer Effect Of Aspilia Africana (Asteraceae) Leaf Extract On Induced Duodenal Ulcer Of Adult Wistar Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) – A Histological Study
A Eweka, A Eweka
aspilia africana, brunnals gland, cellular proliferation, duodenum, epithelia regeneration and wistar rats, healing effect, histological effect
A Eweka, A Eweka. Anti-Ulcer Effect Of Aspilia Africana (Asteraceae) Leaf Extract On Induced Duodenal Ulcer Of Adult Wistar Rats (Rattus Norvegicus) – A Histological Study. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008 Volume 8 Number 1.
Histological studies of the effects of oral administration of extract of
Plant materials as sources of medical compounds continue to play a dominant role in the maintenance of human health since antiquity. Over 50% of all modern chemical drugs are of natural plant product origin, and is essential in drug development programs of the pharmaceutical industry 1 .Like any therapeutic agent, when overdosed or incorrectly used they also have the potential to induce adverse effects. The historic role of medicinal herbs in the treatment and prevention of disease, and their role as catalysts in the development of pharmacology do not, however, assure their safety for uncontrolled use by an uninformed public 2 .
There has been minimal research to address possible adverse reproductive, immunologic, or neurological effects or even systemic toxicity and/or carcinogenicity that might be associated with high doses or prolonged use of these products 3 . This concern was frequently expressed at the International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal herbs could not be assumed safe because they are “natural” 4 .
In Benin City, Nigeria, many plants are used in herbal medicine to cure diseases and heal injuries. Such medicinal plants include
The small intestine functions in the digestion and absorption of food materials in the body. It also prevents duodenal ulceration due to the presence of the Brunner’s gland. The small intestine consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
This work is carried out to investigate and corroborate the previous work done on the efficacy of
Materials And Methods
The tissue were dehydrated in an ascending grade of alcohol (ethanol), cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Serial sections of 7 microns thick were obtained using a rotatory microtome. The deparaffinised sections were stained routinely with haematoxylin and eosin. Photomicrographs of the desired results were obtained using digital research photographic microscope in the University of Benin research laboratory.
The small intestine of the control group (D) showed normal histological features of the duodenum; illustrating well defined and distinct long villi, tall columnar epithelium, and numerous Brunner's glands (Fig.1).
The small intestine of the treated group (C) showed marked distortions in the epithelia and obvious histological changes in Brunner's glands of the duodenum; while that in groups (A) and (B) showed varying degrees of cellular proliferation and epithelia regeneration, and evidence of increased basophilia in the nucleus; with the animals in the group receiving 1g/kg extract of
The results of the haematoxylin and eosin staining (H & E) reactions showed marked distortions in the epithelia and obvious histological changes in Brunner's glands in group “C” rats that received only the dilute Hcl, and varying degrees of cellular proliferation and epithelia regeneration with evidence of increased basophilia in the nucleus of groups “A” and “B” rats; with the animals in group “B” that received 1g/kg extract of
The increase in cellular proliferation and epithelial regeneration in the duodenum in the treatment groups (A & B) as reported in this study may have been as a result of the effects of constituents of
Wounds provide environments conducive for the growth of microbial organisms. Usually, microbial contaminations of wounds involve a variety of organisms such as
In addition to inhibiting the growth of these micro-organisms, the extract and fractions effectively reduced the epithelialisation period of experimentally-induced wounds which is an index of pro-healing activity. The precise aspect as well as the exact mechanism of wound healing affected by the extract and fractions is yet to be elucidated. In the tissue repair process, inflammatory cells promote the migration and proliferation of endothelial cells, leading to neovascularisation of connective tissue cells which synthesize extracellular matrices including collagen, and of keratinocytes resulting to re-epithelialisation of the wounded tissue 28 . In the wound healing process, collagen formation peaks at day 7 and epithelialisation occurs in 48 h under optimal conditions 29 . The extent to which the extractives interact with these processes is not known 16 .
Documented literature reports of Phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions of
It may be inferred from the present results that higher dose and prolonged administration of
Conclusion And Recommendation
In conclusion, our study revealed that