Antimicrobial Potentials of Yaji-Spices: The Constituents of a Complex Nigerian Suya Meat Sauce Inducing Histological Investigations
A Nwaopara, C Anibeze, F Akpuaka, S Nwaopara
antimicrobial agents, drug resistance, herbs, spices
A Nwaopara, C Anibeze, F Akpuaka, S Nwaopara. Antimicrobial Potentials of Yaji-Spices: The Constituents of a Complex Nigerian Suya Meat Sauce Inducing Histological Investigations. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2008 Volume 6 Number 2.
Spices and herbs have been used for thousands of centuries as preservatives for foods and for medicinal purposes. Some of these spices and herbs possess antimicrobial potentials that may, in combination, be considered as alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents especially in this era of antimicrobial drug resistance. Our interest however, is on the widely consumed Nigerian suya meat sauce called
Despite the presence of biologically active substances, which, at high levels of consumption, can exhibit toxicity , spices have been included amongst the substances classified as nutrients and nutraceuticals . In fact, it has been stated that tradition attaches all manner of benefit to every spice, condiment and herb as exemplified in the pharmacopoeias of Indian system of medicine including Ayurvedic, Sidha and Unani systems [3,4,5,6].
Worthy of note also is the fact that the ‘science of nutrition' has been identified as a significant part of preventive medicine  and dietary regulations is an important component of the treatment of diabetes mellitus [8,9,10,11], atherosclerosis [12,13], constipation [14,15,16,17] and other ailment associated with overweight [18,19] and cancer [20,21,22]. Indeed, researchers believe that with diligent efforts, herbs (and spices) can be utilized for the utmost advantage to humans [23,24] and one such advantage, is their use as antimicrobial agents.
Antimicrobial agents are those substances or drugs with antifungal, antiviral, antiparasitic and antibiotic properties. According to the World Health Organization  antimicrobial agents have substantially reduced the threat posed by infectious diseases since their discovery in the 20th century. The use of these “wonder drugs”, combined with improvements in sanitation, housing, and nutrition, and the advent of widespread immunization programmes, has led to a dramatic drop in deaths from diseases that were previously widespread, untreatable, and frequently fatal. Over the years, such agents have saved the lives and eased the suffering of millions of people and have helped in bringing many serious infectious diseases under control. These drugs have also contributed to the major gains in life expectancy experienced during the latter part of the last century.
However, these gains are now seriously jeopardized by another recent development: the emergence and spread of microbes that are resistant to cheap and effective first-choice, or “first-line” drugs. As a result of this, it has been advised that the usage of antimicrobial agents by individuals is preferable when prescribed by a qualified physician since an overuse (or under-use), can propagate resistant microbial variants [26,27,28] and antimicrobial resistance is resulting in increased morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs .
Interestingly, scientific experiments since the late 19th century, have documented the antimicrobial properties of some spices, herbs and their components [30,31,32,33,34]. The interest in the use of compounds derived from spices as antimicrobial agents was sparked up by the changes in consumer attitudes towards the use of preservative agents such as nitrates and sodium chloride (NaCl) in foods during in 1980s .
In this paper therefore, we highlight the antimicrobial potentials of the spices-in-combination within
Considering its mass-consumption rate and complexity,
Judging from the histological findings above, one might conclude that the consumption of
The Antimicrobial Potentials Of
Some plant products can be considered to be natural sauces of antimicrobial agent as researchers from Ohio Weslyan University have reported that some birds select nesting material rich in antimicrobial agents and this was believed to protect their young from harmful bacteria . There is also a report that lowland gorillas take 90% of their diet from the fruits of
This reminds one about the letter dated 9th October 1676, in which Van Leeuwenhoek described the decline in the number and activity of “
There is a report that ginger has strong antibacterial and to some extent antifungal properties . In vitro studies have shown that active constituents of ginger inhibit multiplication of colon bacteria . Ginger inhibits the growth of
Ginger extract and its pungent compounds demonstrated greater antibacterial activity against a variety of bacteria species including
The antimicrobial effect of clove is attributed to eugenol, which is the major active constituent of its essential oil . The microbial inhibition of eugenol might be related to the membrane disruption or, according to Wendakoon and Sakaguchi , by inactivation of enzymes and genetic materials. The bactericidal activity of clove against food borne pathogens, like
It has been suggested that the cytoplasmic membrane is also target for eugenol action and results evidencing the kt efflux corroborated this hypothesis. This result was in agreement with Degre and Sylvestre  who considered that the probable antimicrobial activity of eugenol was on cellular lipids resulting in the loss of intracellular contents.
Adebesin et al.  had observed in their study comparing the microbial counts of several peanut products, that there was a lower microbial count in
Based on the forgoing therefore, the possibility of
We express our appreciation to the authors of several publications from which we derived the information for this presentation. To these authors, we say thank you for your contribution to humanity.
Anthony Obioma Nwaopara Department of Anatomy, Ambrose Alli University, P. M. B. 14 Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. GSM: +234 803 744 1401 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org