Estimation of phenolic acids in different preparations of seeds of finger millet (Eleusine coracana):: Their possible implications in human health
U Singh, S Maurya, K M.Sc. (Ag.) Ph.D., A Singh, M Singh
antioxidants, hplc, phenolic acids
U Singh, S Maurya, K M.Sc. (Ag.) Ph.D., A Singh, M Singh. Estimation of phenolic acids in different preparations of seeds of finger millet (Eleusine coracana):: Their possible implications in human health. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2007 Volume 6 Number 1.
HPLC analysis for phenolic acids of seeds of six varieties (Gaza, KM-252, PES-400, Ranichauri, VL-146, VL-149) and a local variety and their different preparations, i. e., dry, water soaked, cooked seeds, flour and bread of
Finger millet (
Several epidemiological studies have consistently shown that consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as grains, has been strongly associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts and age-related functional decline (7, 8, 9, 10, 11).
The antioxidant characteristics of plant-based bio-product can be attributed to the available amount of polyphenols (12). Until recently most of the nutritional interests in polyphenols was in the deleterious effect caused by the ability of polyphenols to bind and precipitate macromolecules such as dietary protein, carbohydrates and digestive enzymes and thereby reducing food digestibility (13, 14, 15). However, interest in food phenolics has increased because of their anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging ability (11). Polyphenols are products of secondary metabolism of plants and distributed in plant organs with maximum amount in seeds specially in spices (16). They are synthesized biogenetically from two main pathways, e.g., the shikmate and the acetate pathways (17, 18). Natural polyphenols can range from simple molecules such as phenolic acids, to highly polymerized compounds, such as tannin.
Several bioactive phytochemicals, non-nutrient plant compounds in fruits, vegetables, grains and other plant foods prepared from the grains may have been linked in the reductions of the risks of several major chronic diseases (11, 19). Ravikumar and Seethrarm
Materials and Methods
Extraction of phenolic acids from raw and various preparations of
One gram of dried, water soaked, boiled seeds, flour and bread (vernacularly known as chapati) of
Extraction of phenolic acids from aqueous extracts of
Five ml of water soaked/boiled seeds extract of
High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis
HPLC analysis of fractionated material of seeds of
Results and Discussion
HPLC analysis for phenolic acids of seeds of six varieties (Gaza, KM-252, PES-400, Ranichauri, VL-146, VL-149) and a local varieties of
Water soaked seeds of the above mentioned cultivars of
Water extract of seeds of the above cultivars of
Among all these cultivars, VL-149 had maximum phenolic acids after cooking, in which GA acid (4.41 µg/g) was maximum followed by VA, Chl-A and CA in traces. VL-146 showed only GA, VA and CA in which GA (5.50 µg/g) was maximum followed by VA and Chl-A in traces. However, Ranichauri also had three phenolic acids, in which GA (2.59 µg/g) was maximum but Chl-A and O-Cou-A were in traces. Gaza, KM-252 and PES-400 cultivars had only two phenolic acids, in which GA was maximum in all these cultivars but other phenolic acids were in traces (Table 4.).
Several phenolic acids were detected in water extract of boiled seeds in HPLC analysis. Among them, GA and FA were present in most of the extracts. Extract of Ranichauri cultivar had a maximum of five phenolic acids (P-Cat-A, FA, GA, Caf-A and O-Cou-A). Among them, P-cat-A (85.05µg/g) was maximum followed by FA (35.9 µg/g) and GA (7.19 µg/g) but Caf-A and O-Cou-A were in traces. Gaza and KM-252 cultivars also had five phenolic acids but their amount was in traces. Extract of Gaza was rich in FA (6.33 µg/g) followed by GA (4.85 µg/g) but Chl-A, Caf-A, and O-Cou-A in traces. However, in KM-252, GA (3.07 µg/g) was maximum but other phenolic acids like FA, Chl-A, O-Cou-A and CA were in traces. PES-400 and VL-149 had four phenolic acids, in which former was rich in FA (32.46 µg/g) followed by GA (12.36 µg/g) and VA (2.51 µg/g) but CA (0.13 µg/g) was in traces. However, VL-149 cultivar had maximum FA (67.9 µg/g) followed by GA (6.25 µg/g) but Chl-A and CA in traces (Table 5.).
Phenolic acid estimation in flour and bread of local cultivar of
HPLC analysis of different preparations of seeds of
Knowledge of the localization of phenolic compounds in dry, soaked and boiled seeds and their water extracts, flour and bread may contribute in utilizing their immuno-stimulatory activities when used in regular dietary system of human food. If these phenolic acids are isolated in bulk through fraction collector and formulated, they can be exploited for treatment of human and plant diseases (16). Various preparations of
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