Authentication of Kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis): An Important Drug of Ayurveda (Indian Traditional Medicine)
Shradha, V Joshi, S Maurya, U Singh, G Nath, A Singh
adulteration, authentication, phenolic acids
Shradha, V Joshi, S Maurya, U Singh, G Nath, A Singh. Authentication of Kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis): An Important Drug of Ayurveda (Indian Traditional Medicine). The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2006 Volume 5 Number 1.
Due to increase in demand of crude drugs by pharmaceutical industries and others, adulteration and/or substitution is the common practice by drug traders. This kind of business is accelerating very rapidly because of increased demand of plant-based drugs throughout the world. With a greater realization of tremendous potential of the therapeutic uses and economic values of herbal therapy, the marketed drugs are frequently adulterated as collection of glandular hairs is quite laborious and the material may not be enough to meet the demand. The powder is adulterated with Annatto dye (
The World Health Organization (W.H.O) has given guidelines to the member states to ensure about genuine use of plants and their parts before their use for human health9. In view of the above direction by W.H.O. it was thought to have a survey of crude drug market.
The samples were collected from different places of India and subjected to chemical analysis with particular reference to phenolic acids through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC).
Materials and Methods
Collection of samples and extraction of phenolic compounds
The phenolic acids were extracted as per the method of Singh
Quantitative analysis of the samples was performed according to the method of Singh
Results and Discussion
Recent researches indicate that phytophenols, being chief secondary metabolites, are present in rich amount in several plants. Many of them posses antioxidant, antiinflammatory and several other therapeutic properties. (Table 1.). Fig. 1,a shows the peaks of reference phenolic compounds. The analysis of different samples of
Lucknow (Fig. 1,g) had seven phenolic acids eg. gallic, caffeic, vanillic, ferulic, cinnamic, o-coumaric, salicylic acids. Sample of immature fruits from Ayurvedic garden of Banaras Hindu University (Fig. 1,h) had six phenolic acids in which vanillic acid was maximum. Mature hairs and glands from fruits from the garden of Banaras Hindu University (Fig. 1,i) revealed cinnamic acid (2.412 µg/g) in maximal amount followed by gallic (2.069 µg/g), ferulic (0.417 µg/g) Caffeic (0.453 µg/g) and O-coumaric (0.448 µg/g). Salicylic acid was maximum in the sample of Mumbai (Fig. 1,,j) followed by gallic, o-coumaric, tannic, caffeic, ferulic acids. That of Jaipur (Fig. 1,k) had salicylic (3.914 µg/g), gallic (1.289 µg/g), vanillic (1.452 µg/g), caffeic (1.458 µg/g) (Table 2.).
Diverse pharmacological activities have been accredited to phenolic acids for instance, gallic acid has antiinflammatory14, antibacterial15, caffeic acid with anti inflammatory17, antibacterial, antifungal18; ferulic acid with anti-inflammatory17, antifungal27; cinnamic acid with antifungal27, anthelmintic12, natural protection against infections by pathogenic microorganisms28; salicylic acid with antipyretic and antiinflammatory29, externally used as antiseptic, antifungal and for various skin conditions12.
HPLC analysis of the samples revealed wide-variability in their phenolic acid content. Maximal amount of phenolic acids was detected in Dehradun sample. A comparative analysis between immature and mature samples showed increase in cinnamic acid and gallic acid content in the later.
Mature glands and hairs of
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