Bio-Morphological Characteristics of Bacterial Species Identified from Mastitic Milk Samples of Camel
S Fazlani, M Abubakar, S Shah, M ul Hassan, M Arshed
bacterial species, bio-morphological characteristics, mastitic milk and camel
S Fazlani, M Abubakar, S Shah, M ul Hassan, M Arshed. Bio-Morphological Characteristics of Bacterial Species Identified from Mastitic Milk Samples of Camel. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2008 Volume 6 Number 1.
Eight different bacterial species were identified from mastitic milk samples of camels. The species were <I>Bacillus cereus, Corynebacterium pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pasteurella haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.</I> Morphologically, they varied from cocci to rod shape and were gram-positive and negative. The bacterial species produced a variety of colonies on different culture media. Some were spherical, swarming and spreading colonies on agar media while in broth granular turbidity with powdery deposits were also seen during investigation. A few of them produced α and β haemolysis of red blood cells in blood agar.
Mastitis is recognized world wide as the most important and costly disease of dairy animals. Field surveys of major livestock diseases in Pakistan have indicated that mastitis is one of the most important health hazards in the country (Ajmal, 1990). Mastitis is caused by interaction of various factors associated with host, pathogens and the environment. Infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae are mostly the primary causes of disease. The etiology of mastitis is very complex because a large number of microorganisms are known to cause inflammation of the udder. Generally, well-recognized organisms responsible for mastitis are
Bio-morphological variation in the characteristics of bacterial species that cause mastitis is described by Dewani (2000). In addition, several workers have observed the bio-morphological characteristics of bacterial species through-out the world (Gabbar, 1992; Bergey’s 1992; and Khan & Rind, 2001). So in the following investigation, bio-morphological characteristics from isolation and identification of species, independent of their bio-morphological and antigenic characteristics, were studied and described.
Material and Methods
Seventy eight clinical mastitic milk samples from different herds of camels were collected in sterilized bijoux bottles (completely wrapped/ covered with aluminum foil) and brought to Central Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (CVDL), Tando Jam, Sindh, Pakistan for isolation and identification of bacterial species. Before collection of samples, the tips of mastitic teats were cleaned with cotton wool moistened with 70% alcohol and few strips of milk were discarded to avoid contamination as much as possible.
Before processing the samples, all preparations were made as described by Gabbar (1992). The media to be needed for proper cultivation and inoculation of bacterial organisms were prepared, inoculation and identification characteristics whether of physical, cultural, biochemical and morphological were recorded as adopted by Khan and Rind (2001).
The biochemical tests were conducted to confirm the identification of bacterial organisms. For this purpose, oxidase, catalase, coagulase, indole, Voges Proskauer, Urease, methyl red, gelatin liquefaction, Simmon’s Citrate, H2S production, asculin hydrolysis and TSI teats were carried-out (Difco, 1960) while for sugar fermentation properties, nine different sugars of 1% were prepared and used for each bacterium as described by Cruickshank (1970). The sugars were: Mannose, Xylose, Inositol, Galactose, Mannitol, Glucose, Maltose, Creatinin and Dulcitol.
Results and Discussion
During present investigation, morphological, cultural, staining and chemical characteristics of various bacterial species of camel mastitis were recorded and presented in different tables.
The cells of the species were observed as straight rods with rounded ends, arranged singly or in chains and motile. Stained positively in young cultures and gram-negatively in old cultures. Colonies on blood agar were seen dull-white with undulated margin and produced β haemolysis, uniform turbidity also recorded in nutrient broth medium, it did not grow on MacConkey’s agar. Biochemically species was observed that possessed catalase, oxidase, citrate utilization and aesculin hydrolysis properties and considered to be positive. It fermented glucose, mannose, xylose, galactose, creatinin, dulcitol, maltose and mannitol, but did not ferment inositol (Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4). Gabbar (1992) also described almost similar morphological, staining and cultural characteristics, whereas Dewani (2000) reported that
The organisms of this specie were straight, slightly curved short rods, arranged singly, in pairs, V forms and small clusters. Non-motile, gram-positive but also stained irregularly and sometimes considered to be acid-fast. The colonies on blood agar were seen gray-white, convex, entire and produced β haemolysis. It produced granular and pellicle growth in nutrient broth. It did not grow on MacConkey’s medium.
The organism was observed as gram-negative, bipolar and slightly pleomorphic short rods, arranged singly and non-motile. Colonies were mucoid, shiny and convex with irregular margin and β haemolytic with distinctive smell on blood agar. Turbidity growth was observed in nutrient broth medium. Showed its positive interaction with catalase, oxidase, gelatin and nitrate reduction, but did not interact with indole, urea, methyl red, Voges Proskauer and citrate. It produced A/A when cultured on TSI but no H2S production occurred in TSI agar (Table 1 to 4).
Organisms showed gram-negative, bipolar and coccobacillary short rods, arranged singly and non-motile. On the blood agar, it exhibited moist, mucoid and shiny growth. The colonies were convex with regular margin and distinctive smell, but not grew on MacConkey’s agar. While in nutrient broth medium, granular deposits were formed in the bottom of the tube (Tables 1 and 2). It interacted positively to catalase, oxidase, indole, gelatin liquefaction and nitrate reduction, but negatively to urea, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer and citrate (Tables 3 and 4). The findings regarding general characteristics of
The cells were gram-positive, cocci, arranged singly/pairs or in irregular clusters. The species was non-motile and non-spore forming. Cultural characteristics observed was a white to yellowish white smooth raised and glistening colonies with circular and entire margin. It produced β haemolysis of red blood cells on blood agar. It produced uniform turbidity in nutrient broth, whereas it did not grow on MacConkey’s agar medium. (Tables 1 to 4). It fermented glucose, mannose, galactose, maltose, inositol, xylose, dulcitol and mannitol sugars, but not utilized creatinin. Gabbar (1992), Khan and Rind (2001), Obied (1983) and Shaikh (1999) also recorded similar characteristics regarding