S Mastan, G Indu Priya, E Babu
haematological profile, lead nitrate
S Mastan, G Indu Priya, E Babu. Haematological Profile of Clarias batrachus (Linn.) Exposed to Sub- Lethal Doses of Lead Nitrate. The Internet Journal of Hematology. 2008 Volume 6 Number 1.
In the present study, the sub - lethal effect of lead on haematological profile of
The effect of heavy metals on aquatic organism is currently attracting wide spread attention particularly in studies related to industrial pollution. High toxicity of industrial pollutions have been known since long time, but their hazardous nature as pollution of aquatic environment has been matter of concern only after a large number of deaths of fishes occurring in different areas due to different metals.
Fish live in very intimate contact with their environment, and are therefore very susceptible to physical and chemical changes which may be reflect in their blood component (Wilson and Taylor,1993).In fish , exposure to chemical pollutants can induce either increase or decrease in haemotological levels. Early diagnosis is also possible when evaluating haematological data,
particularly blood parameters (Folmar,1993;Golovina,1996;Luskova,1997).Furthermore, should be noted that haematological indices are of different sensitivity to various environmental factors and chemicals (Lebedeva
A survey of literature on heavy metals toxicity clearly shows that heavy metals cause several haematological and biochemical disorders both in laboratory animals as well as on aquatic organisms. The toxicity of lead, copper and other metals has been studied since mid 1920, (Qasim 1923, Dilling
Materials and Methods
Alive, healthy and disease free fishes (
Lead nitrate ( Pb (No3 )2 ) were used for the preparation of various concentration (stock solution) by adopting the dilution techniques. Adequate quantity of distilled water was used to get the required concentration. Sub-lethal level of the above metal was determined on the above said species by the prohibit analysis method (Finney, 1971). Sixteen fishes were exposed to sub- lethal concentration for 8, 16 and 24 hours under acute studies. While chronic studies were also conducted for 45 days. Haematological studies were made after 15, 30, 45 days of exposure. Blood was drawn from posterior caudal vein according to Schmitt
Large size glass aquaria were chosen to avoid space problem to fish, Various water quality parameters such as water temperature, hydrogen ion – concentration (PH), dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total alkalinity, calcium hardness and total hardness were analyzed before sacrifice of fish. Water quality parameters were analyzed by following the procedure of APHA (2000).
Fish behavior was observed and recorded accordingly. Control groups were maintained for all the above experiments, after exposure the fish was sacrificed for haematological examination. Each experiment was done in triplicates.
The data so obtained was analysed by applying analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test the level of significance.
In the present study, attempts have been made to investigate the effect of sub-lethal concentrations of lead nitrate on various haematological and biochemical parameters of
In (10mg/l) lead nitrate exposed fishes, the number of RBC was observed to be 2.4 ± 0.0816, 2.6 ± 0.0815, 2.9 ± 0.0816 for 8, 16, and 24 hours exposure, respectively. The haemoglobin content was found to be 13.02 ± 0.0085, 11.70 ± 0.0083, 11.02 ± 0.0084 for 8, 16, and 24 hours exposure, respectively.(Fig-1)
In (50 mg/l) lead nitrate exposed fishes, the number of RBC exposed to be 3.00 ± 0.0084, 2.15 ± 0.0081, and 2.85 ± 0.0085 for 8, 16, and 24 hours exposure respectively. The haemoglobin content was found to be 12.60 ± 0.0083, 11.25 ±0.0082 and 11.85 ± 0.0084 exposed fishes, respectively, while in (100 mg/l) exposed fishes, the number of RBC was recorded to be 12.30 ± 0.0083, 10.20 ± 0.0084 and 11.25 ± 0.0085 for 8, 16 and 24 hours exposure, respectively. (Fig-22)
In all cases, the differential leukocyte count was deviating significantly from normal values. The increase was observed in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils while decrease was noticed in the number of monocytes and neutrophils. (Fig 4,5,6).
Serum protein profile
The serum protein profile
While in (100mg/l)lead exposed fishes the total serum protein was recorded to be 4.20 ± 0.0083, 3.80 ± 0.0084 and 3.20 ± 0.0082 for 8, 16 and 24 hours exposure, respectively.(Fig-5)
In all the cases, the total serum protein was decreased as the period of intoxication was increased.
In (10mg/l) lead nitrate exposed fishes, the number of RBC was observed to be 2.1 ± 0.0085, 2.80 ± 0.0083, and 3.4 ± 0.0082 for 15, 30 and 45 days exposure, respectively. The haemoglobin content was found to be 13.2 ± 0.0081, 12.89 ± 0.0084 and 12.20 ± 0.0085 for 15, 30 and 45 days exposure, respectively.(Fig-10)
In all cases, the differential leukocyte count was deviating significantly from normal values. The increase was observed in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils while decrease was noticed in the number of monocytes and neutrophils.(Fig-11)
Serum protein profile
In (10mg/l) lead nitrate exposed fishes the total the serum protein was recorded to be 3.35 ± 0.0081, 2.10 ± 0.0084 and 1.45 ± 0.005 for 15, 30 and 45 days exposure, respectively.
The result of Physico-chemical parameters of expiriment water are given in the table -1
Aquatic environment is constantly polluted from a variety of sources and presently it has assumed a dangerous proportion for aquatic life and fish species are no exception. In reality, heavy metals intoxication cause deleterious effect such as enzyme inactivation, reduction in RBC’s life span and haemoglobin surface area, mitochondrial dysfunction, breakage of genetic material, interference with immunology, alterations in haematological and biochemical organization of different fish species.
Among the heavy metals, lead is one of the metal known to man since medieval times. It is a non - essential element being released into the media either terrestrial or aquatic and is causing several toxicological problems to aquatic animals and man. The natural water is continuously being contaminated by lead due to increase anthropogenic activity and industrial exploitation of metal (Chandravathi and Reddy, 1996). The harmful effects caused by lead include haematological, biochemical and physiological alterations in several aquatic species (Chandravathi and Reddy, 1996).
The uptake and accumulation of lead by aquatic organisms from water and sediment are influenced by various environmental factors such as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, hardness etc. in sediment, only a minor fraction is dissolved in water. Lead is accumulated mostly in gill, liver, kidney and bone, fish accumulates lead from water as well as sediments, aquatic uptake is influenced by presence of cation and oxygen content of water (IPCS, 1989). Heavy metals probably exact their toxic effect on fish by reacting with the mucous on the surface of the gills causing precipitation, coagulation and thus interfere with the normal exchange of gases (Carpenter 1927, 1930). The toxic effects of heavy metals on fish are multidirectional and manifested by numerous changes in the physiological and chemical process of their body system (Dimitrova
In present study it has been observed that, in the exposed fishes the number of RBCs and haemoglobin percentage decreased significantly from normal values. However, the differential leucocyte counts were deviating significantly from normal values. The increase was observed in the number of lymphocytes and eosinophils while decrease was noticed in the number of monocytes and neutrophils. the total serum protein was also decreased as compared to normal value. This is in the agreement with the work of Shan (2006) and Olanike K. Adeyemo