U Murty, N Dhanwada, N Arora
U Murty, N Dhanwada, N Arora. Chikungunya Outbreak In Kurnool District, Andhra Pradesh. The Internet Journal of Health. 2006 Volume 6 Number 2.
A sudden upsurge in fever cases with arthralgia /arthritis rising up to magnitude of an epidemic was observed in Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh in November, 2005, which further escalated with time raising an alarm in other districts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining states. Based on presented clinical features and symptoms, the disease was diagnosed which is a crippling and self-limiting viral disease. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected
Since its first description by Marion Robinson and W.H.R. Lumsden in 1955, Chikungunya virus in its recent outbreak across the globe has claimed exponential morbidity. Chikungunya is a self limiting febrile, crippling disease caused by Buggy Creek Virus or Chikungunya virus belonging to genus Alphavirus of family Togaviridae (Khan
Kurnool district is located in the West-Central region lying in Rayalaseema area of the State bounded at the North by the Tungabadra and Krishna rivers. The District covers an area of 17,658 sq.km. and has a population of around 29,74000. The district is surrounded by Guntur and Nellore districts in the East, Ballary district in the West, Mahaboobnagar district in the North, Cuddapah and Anantapur districts in the South directions.
As Chikungunya and Dengue are quite similar in their symptoms, Patients are often misdiagnosed and treated. In order to confirm Chikungunya cases, 386 sera samples were collected from the representative cases from the outpatients treated in medical camps and hospitals from Kurnool district. The samples were transported and tested at NIV laboratories.
Entomological survey was conducted by team from Directorate of Health.. Morning and evening house dwelling and cattle shed collections were taken. The house index (Number of houses with
Clinical – epidemiological features
Based on the complaints of outpatients treated in Medical camps and hospitals, the onset of illness was observed to be acute with moderate to high – grade fever, chills and associated joint pains. The joints affected were knee, ankle, elbow, wrist and small joints of the hand. Convalescence was prolonged with joint pains persisting for 1-2 months. In most of cases, the patients found it difficult to stand up on their own and walk because of joint pain. No history of headache, diarrhoea, cough, haemorrhagic manifestation was observed. Lymphadenopathy and rash was not a significant presentation. All age groups were affected with preponderance in 15 years and above. Very few cases have been reported from under 15 years age group. No sex differentiation has been reported. Cases have been reported from both urban and rural areas. Multiple cases in family were observed developing illness within a week, probably acquiring infection at the same time
In the entomological survey conducted by team headed by district health officer, mosquitoes were trapped from 5 villages viz Pyalakurthi, Gundampad, Jopharapuram, Konidyala and Ramakrishnapuram from the affected district. The mosquitoes catch comprised of
Around 52 houses were found positive for presence of
The probable vector of transmission of the virus was the
Chikungunya fever is a self-limiting viral disease characterized by arthritis mostly involving the wrist, ankle, knee and small joints of the extremities associated with rashes and fever. It is transmitted by bite of the mosquito vector
There have been previous reports of Chikungunya disease outbreaks in India. The first outbreak in India was recorded in Kolkatta in 1963(Shah
Authors thank Dr. J. S. Yadav, FNA, Director, IICT, for his continuous support and encouragement. Neelima Arora thanks CSIR for Senior Research Fellowship.
Upadhyayula .S.N.Murty, M.Sc, Ph.D, Biology division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad – 500 007, India email@example.com.